Molytinae

Tranes vigorsi, copyright Jordan M.

Belongs within: Curculioninae.
Contains: Pissodes, Cranopoeini, Plinthina, Lithinina, Anchonus, Mecistocerini, Cryptorhynchinae.

The Molytinae are a group of weevils characterised by the presence of an uncus on all tibiae (Marvaldi & Lanteri 2005). As commonly recognised, this subfamily is likely to be polyphyletic and requires revision. Tranes and related genera are found in association with cycads.

Characters (from Marvaldi & Lanteri 2005): Elytral base not extended forward, pronotal base exposed. Metepimeron covered by elytra. Sternal channel usually absent (if prosternal channel present, without cup-like mesosternal receptacle). All tibiae with well-developed uncus. Tarsal claws frequently separate, free. Pygidium covered by elytra.

<==MolytinaeM94
    |--+--Heilipodus argentinicusLE23, ML05
    |  `--MecistoceriniLB20
    `--+--CryptorhynchinaeLE23
       `--+--VanapaLE23
          |--Peribleptus Schoenherr 1843LB20, M94
          |    |--P. dealbatus (Boisduval 1835) [=Alcides dealbatus, Paepalosomus dealbatus]M94
          |    `--P. scalptusM94
          `--Tranes Schoenherr 1843LE23, A02 [incl. MelanotranesM94, Platyphaeus Pascoe 1877A02]
               |--*T. vigorsiM94
               |--T. insularis Pascoe 1874Mas86
               |--T. internatus Pascoe 1870A02 [=*Melanotranes internatusM94]
               |--T. lyterioides (Pascoe 1875) [=Platyphaeus lyterioides]M94
               |--T. monopticus Pascoe 1870Mas86
               |--T. roei Boheman in Schoenherr 1843 [=Melanotranes roei]M94
               `--T. sparsus Boheman in Schoenherr 1843M94
Molytinae incertae sedis:
  Acalyptus Schoenherr 1833GC-P14, A02 [incl. Orsophagus Roelofs 1874A02; Acalyptini]
    `--A. carpini (Herbst 1795)A02
  HoweotranesB14
  MilotranesB14
  ParatranesB14
  Eurhamphus fasciculatusLB91
  Opsittis atomaria Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Ithaura [incl. Pentacerus]Z93
  Alphitopis nivea Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Cechides amoenus Pascoe 1872Mas86
  Lexithia rufipennis Pascoe 1870Mas86
  NeosyagriusB70
  Demyrsus Pascoe 1872M94
    `--*D. meleoides Pascoe 1872M94
  MethyporaB70
    |--M. posticaMas86
    `--M. tibialisB70
  SiratonB14
    |--S. internatus (Pascoe 1870)B14
    `--S. roeiB14
  PsaldusMas86
    |--P. ammodytes Pascoe 1873Mas86
    `--P. liosomoides Pascoe 1870Mas86
  SyagriusMas86
    |--S. fulvitarsis Pascoe 1875Mas86
    `--S. intrudens Waterhouse 1903Z93
  AntilophusML05
  Euthebus Pascoe 1870P-NJO17
    `--E. troglodytes Pascoe 1870Mas86
  PacholeniniML05
  Gononotus LeConte 1876 [incl. Nemosinus Faust 1892; Cycloterina, Cycloterini]ML05
  NettarhininiML05
  GuioperiniML05
  JuanorhininiML05
  PaipalesominiL20
  MetatyginiL20
  MecysolobiniL20
  CotasteromiminiL20
  Trigonocolus [Trigonocolinae, Trigonocolini]D09
    `--T. curvipes Klima 1935D09
  Thalasselephas Egorov & Korotyaev 1976 (see below for synonymy)A02
    `--T. testaceus (LeConte 1876)A02
  Nanus Schoenherr 1844 [incl. Homaloxenus Wollaston 1873; Trypetidini]A02
    |--N. erythrurus Chv. 1880FS90
    `--N. uniformis Boheman 1844FS90
  Amalactini [Amalactides, Amalactinae]ML05
    |--Iphipus roeiMas86
    `--Ixamine atomaria Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Lepyrus Germar 1817 [incl. Dirus Dejean 1821; Lepyrini]A02
    |--L. arcticusC01
    `--L. palustrisC01
  PetalochiliiniML05
    |--Spermologus rufusML05
    `--Hormops LeConte 1876A02
         `--H. abducens LeConte 1876A02
  Phrynixini [Phrynixinae]L20
    |--Phrynixus terreusWH02
    `--GeochinaL20
         |--Geochus Broun 1882L20
         `--Afrogeochus Rheinheimer 1998L20
  LymantiniML05
    |--Lymantes Schoenherr 1838 [incl. Stewpeckia Osella 1980, Typhloglymma Dury 1901]A02
    |--Caecossonus Gilbert 1955A02
    |    `--C. dentipes Gilbert 1955A02
    `--Dioptrophorus Faust 1892A02 (see below for synonymy)
         `--D. repens (Casey 1892)A02
  CholiniD09
    |--Ameris yncaML05
    |--Neoerethistes O’Brien & Wibmer 1982 [Rhinastina]A02
    |    `--N. arizonicus (Sleeper 1954)A02
    `--Cholus Germar 1824 (see below for synonymy)A02
         |--C. cattleyae (Champion 1916)A02
         |--C. cinctusMW15
         |--C. rana Schoenherr 1825D09
         `--‘Polyderces’ zonatus Swed. 1787 [incl. P. tricinctus]FS90
  Pissodini [Pissodinae]ML05
    |--PissodesA02
    `--Pseudohylobius Morimoto 1962M62
         `--*P. setosus Morimoto 1962M62
  CranopoeiniL20
  PlinthinaA02
  Sternechus Schoenherr 1826 (see below for synonymy)A02
    |--S. armatus (Casey 1895)A02
    |--S. insularisFS90
    |--S. paludatus (Casey 1895)A02
    `--S. vicinus Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
  LithininaL20
  AnchonusML05
  AedemoniniLB20
  Demimaea strumosaLB20

Cholus Germar 1824 [incl. Aphyoramphus Guérin-Méneville 1844, Archarias Dejean 1821, Ardoleucus Checrolat 1881, Atroniscus Desbrochers 1906, Dionychus Germar 1824, Gymnonotus Chevrolat 1879, Litomerus Schoenherr 1833, Lonchocerus Chevrolat 1879, Platypachys Chevrolat 1879, Polyderces Schoenherr 1833, Sternoxus Chevrolat 1879; Cholina]A02

Dioptrophorus Faust 1892A02 [incl. Anculopus Van Dyke 1927A02, Metopotoma Casey 1892A02, Metopoma (l. c.)Z93]

Sternechus Schoenherr 1826A02 [=Sternuchus Gemminger & Harold 1871 non LeConte 1850A02; incl. Plectromodes Casey 1895A02; SternechiniML05]

Thalasselephas Egorov & Korotyaev 1976 [incl. Neophycocoetes O’Brien & Wibmer 1982, Phycocoetes LeConte 1876 non Agassiz 1846; Thalasselephantini]A02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L20] Legalov, A. A. 2020. Annotated key to weevils of the world. Part 4. Subfamilies Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae and Cossoninae (Curculionidae). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 10 (2): 319–331.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[M62] Morimoto, K. 1962. Descriptions of a new subfamily, new genera and species of the family Curculionidae of Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 11 (4): 375–409.

[P-NJO17] Pinzón-Navarro, S. V., D. Jennings & R. G. Oberprieler. 2017. Host associations of Melanterius Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleogonini), with a diagnosis and delimitation of the genus and description of five new species. Zootaxa 4298 (1): 1–77.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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