Molytinae

Tranes vigorsi, copyright Jordan M.

Belongs within: Curculioninae.
Contains: Cholini, Pissodes, Lithinina, AnchonusLaemosaccus, Cleonini, Plinthina, Mecistocerini, Cryptorhynchini, Mesoptillini, Hylobiini, Haplonyx, Lixus, Larinus.

The Molytinae are a group of weevils characterised by the presence of an uncus on all tibiae (Marvaldi & Lanteri 2005). As commonly recognised, this subfamily is likely to be polyphyletic and requires revision.

Tranes and related genera are found in association with cycads. The Cryptoplini are an Australasian assemblage most commonly found on Myrtaceae.

Characters (from Marvaldi & Lanteri 2005): Elytral base not extended forward, pronotal base exposed. Metepimeron covered by elytra. Sternal channel usually absent (if prosternal channel present, without cup-like mesosternal receptacle). All tibiae with well-developed uncus. Tarsal claws frequently separate, free. Pygidium covered by elytra.

<==Molytinae [Lixinae, Magdalidinae, Magdalinides, Mesoptillinae, Molytini]M94
|--+--Anisorhynchus ferusHL23
| `--Demimaea [Demimaeini]HL23
| `--D. strumosaLB20
`--+--+--+--+--+--Heilipodus argentinicusHL23, ML05
| | | | `--MecistoceriniLB20
| | | `--CryptorhynchiniHL23
| | `--+--+--AcleesLB20
| | | | |--A. cribratusLC40
| | | | |--A. indigenusLB20
| | | | `--A. porosusMac86
| | | `--+--MesoptilliniHL23
| | | `--PinacopusLB20
| | `--+--+--LiparusLB20
| | | | |--L. disparR13
| | | | |--L. germanus (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Curculio germanusG20]
| | | | `--L. tenebrioidesLB20
| | | `--HylobiiniLB20
| | `--+--Paramecops farinosusLB20, LC40
| | `--PimelocerusLB20
| `--+--VanapaLE23
| |--Peribleptus Schoenherr 1843LB20, M94
| | |--P. dealbatus (Boisduval 1835) [=Alcides dealbatus, Paepalosomus dealbatus]M94
| | `--P. scalptusM94
| `--Tranes Schoenherr 1843HL23, A02 [incl. MelanotranesM94, Platyphaeus Pascoe 1877A02]
| |--*T. vigorsiM94
| |--T. insignipesHL23
| |--T. insularis Pascoe 1874Mas86
| |--T. internatus Pascoe 1870A02 [=*Melanotranes internatusM94]
| |--T. lyterioides (Pascoe 1875) [=Platyphaeus lyterioides]M94
| |--T. monopticus Pascoe 1870Mas86
| |--T. roei Boheman in Schoenherr 1843 [=Melanotranes roei]M94
| `--T. sparsus Boheman in Schoenherr 1843M94
`--+--+--Thecesternus Say 1831A02 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--T. affinisHL23
| | |--T. hirsutus Pierce 1909A02
| | `--‘Lithodus’ humeralisLC40
| `--Cryptoplini [Haplonycides, Haplonychinae]HL23
| |--Zeopus storeoides Pascoe 1872Mas86
| |--Sigastus fascicularisMas86
| |--HaplonyxLE23
| |--Cryptoplus Erichson 1842M94
| | `--*C. perdix Erichson 1842M94
| `--AollesMas86
| |--A. nuceus Pascoe 1870Mas86
| `--A. rubiginosus Pascoe 1870Mas86
`--+--+--Alcidodes Marshall 1939LB20, M94
| | |--A. bubo (Fabricius 1801) [=Rhynchaenus bubo]M94
| | |--A. elegansLB20
| | `--A. leeuweniMHG04
| `--+--BothynoderesLB20
| | |--B. albidus [=Curculio albidus, Cleonus albidus]LC40
| | `--B. brevirostrisG89
| `--LixiniHL23
| | i. s.: Eustenopus Petri 1907A02
| | `--E. villosus (Boheman 1843)A02
| | Microlarinus Hockhuth 1847A02
| | |--M. lareynii (Jacquelin du Val 1852)A02
| | |--M. lypriformis (Wollaston 1861)A02
| | `--M. rhinocylloides Hochhuth 1847HF03
| |--Ammocleonus hieroglyphicusHL23
| `--+--LixusHL23
| `--LarinusHL23
`--+--+--Adexius scrobipennis Gyllenhal 1834LB20, AS08
| `--+--Neolaemosaccus Hustache 1937LB20, M94
| | |--*N. subsignatus [=Laemosaccus subsignatus]M94
| | |--N. narinus (Pascoe 1872) [=Laemosaccus narinus]M94
| | `--N. petulansLB20
| `--EctatorhinusLB20
| |--E. alatusLB20
| `--E. wallaceiM78
`--+--OtibazoLB20
`--Niphades costatusLB20

Molytinae incertae sedis:
HoweotranesB14
MilotranesB14
ParatranesB14
Eurhamphus fasciculatusLB91
Opsittis atomaria Pascoe 1870Mas86
Ithaura [incl. Pentacerus]Z93
Alphitopis nivea Pascoe 1870Mas86
Cechides amoenus Pascoe 1872Mas86
Lexithia rufipennis Pascoe 1870Mas86
NeosyagriusB70
Demyrsus Pascoe 1872M94
`--*D. meleoides Pascoe 1872M94
MethyporaB70
|--M. posticaMas86
`--M. tibialisB70
SiratonB14
|--S. internatus (Pascoe 1870)B14
`--S. roeiB14
PsaldusMas86
|--P. ammodytes Pascoe 1873Mas86
`--P. liosomoides Pascoe 1870Mas86
AntilophusML05
Euthebus Pascoe 1870P-NJO17
`--E. troglodytes Pascoe 1870Mas86
PacholenusLC40 [PacholeniniML05]
`--P. pelliceusLC40
Gononotus LeConte 1876 [incl. Nemosinus Faust 1892; Cycloterina, Cycloterini]ML05
NettarhinusLC40 [NettarhininiML05]
`--N. anthribiformisLC40
GuioperiniML05
JuanorhininiML05
PaipalesominiL20
MetatyginiL20
MecysolobiniL20
CotasteromiminiL20
Trigonocolus [Trigonocolinae, Trigonocolini]D09
`--T. curvipes Klima 1935D09
Thalasselephas Egorov & Korotyaev 1976 (see below for synonymy)A02
`--T. testaceus (LeConte 1876)A02
Nanus Schoenherr 1844 [incl. Homaloxenus Wollaston 1873; Trypetidini]A02
|--N. erythrurus Chv. 1880FS90
`--N. uniformis Boheman 1844FS90
Amalactini [Amalactides, Amalactinae]ML05
|--IphipusMas86
| |--I. roeiMas86
| `--I. rudisLC40
|--Ixamine atomaria Pascoe 1870Mas86
`--Amalactus nigritusLC40
Lepyrus Germar 1817 [incl. Dirus Dejean 1821; Lepyrini]A02
|--L. arcticusC01
|--L. binotatus [=Curculio binotatus]LC40
|--L. colon [=Rhynchaenus colon]LC40
`--L. palustrisC01
PetalochiliiniML05
|--Spermologus rufusML05
`--Hormops LeConte 1876A02
`--H. abducens LeConte 1876A02
LymantiniML05
|--Lymantes Schoenherr 1838 [incl. Stewpeckia Osella 1980, Typhloglymma Dury 1901]A02
|--Caecossonus Gilbert 1955A02
| `--C. dentipes Gilbert 1955A02
`--Dioptrophorus Faust 1892A02 (see below for synonymy)
`--D. repens (Casey 1892)A02
CholiniD09
Pissodini [Pissodinae]ML05
|--PissodesA02
`--Pseudohylobius Morimoto 1962M62
`--*P. setosus Morimoto 1962M62
Sternechus Schoenherr 1826 (see below for synonymy)A02
|--S. armatus (Casey 1895)A02
|--S. insularisFS90
|--S. paludatus (Casey 1895)A02
|--S. trachyptomus [=Orobitis trachyptomus]LC40
`--S. vicinus Fleutiaux & Sallé 1890FS90
LithininaL20
AnchonusML05
AedemoniniLB20
Saccolaemus narinus (Pascoe 1872)LB91, H82
LaemosaccusA02
Broconius pallipes Zumpt 1938HF03
Hypolixus nubilosus (Boheman 1836) [incl. H. ornatus Reiche 1857, Lixus ornatus]HF03
Mecaspis baudii Faust 1887HF03
Menecleonus anxius (Gyllenhal 1834)HF03
Rhabdorrhynchus anchusae (Chevrolat 1854)HF03
NefisB14
RhinocylliniGC-P14
|--Rhinocyllus Germar 1817A02
| |--*R. conicus (Froelich 1792)M94, A02
| |--R. oblongus Capiomont 1873HF03
| `--R. thaumaturgus [=Curculio thaumaturgus; incl. C. antiodontalgicus]LC40
`--Bangasternus Gozis 1882 [incl. Coelostethus Capiomont 1873 non LeConte 1861]A02
|--B. fausti Reitter 1890A02
|--B. orientalis (Capiomont 1873)A02
`--B. planifrons (Brullé 1832)HF03
CleoniniA02
PlinthinaA02
MolytesLC40
|--M. coronatus [=Curculio coronatus]LC40
`--M. glabratus [=Curculio glabratus]LC40

Dioptrophorus Faust 1892A02 [incl. Anculopus Van Dyke 1927A02, Metopotoma Casey 1892A02, Metopoma (l. c.)Z93]

Sternechus Schoenherr 1826A02 [=Sternuchus Gemminger & Harold 1871 non LeConte 1850A02; incl. Plectromodes Casey 1895A02; SternechiniML05]

Thalasselephas Egorov & Korotyaev 1976 [incl. Neophycocoetes O’Brien & Wibmer 1982, Phycocoetes LeConte 1876 non Agassiz 1846; Thalasselephantini]A02

Thecesternus Say 1831A02 [incl. Lithodus Germar 1834A02, Thicosternus Gemminger & Harold 1871A02; Thecesterninae, ThecesterniniHL23]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[HL23] Haran, J., X. Li, R. Allio, S. Shin, L. Benoit, R. G. Oberprieler, B. D. Farrell, S. D. J. Brown, R. A. B. Leschen, G. J. Kergoat & D. D. McKenna. 2023. Phylogenomics illuminates the phylogeny of flower weevils (Curculioninae) and reveals ten independent origins of brood-site pollination mutualism in true weevils. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 290: 20230889.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L20] Legalov, A. A. 2020. Annotated key to weevils of the world. Part 4. Subfamilies Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae and Cossoninae (Curculionidae). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 10 (2): 319–331.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[M62] Morimoto, K. 1962. Descriptions of a new subfamily, new genera and species of the family Curculionidae of Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 11 (4): 375–409.

[M78] Morimoto, K. 1978. On the genera of Oriental Cryptorhynchinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Esakia 11: 121–143.

[P-NJO17] Pinzón-Navarro, S. V., D. Jennings & R. G. Oberprieler. 2017. Host associations of Melanterius Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleogonini), with a diagnosis and delimitation of the genus and description of five new species. Zootaxa 4298 (1): 1–77.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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