Monograptus

Monograptus uniformis, photographed by Francisco Miguel Merino Laguna.

Belongs within: Monograptoidea.

Monograptus has been recognised as a genus of uniserial graptoloids from the Lower Silurian to Lower Devonian. Monophyly of the genus is, however, uncertain, as it has been used to refer to all monograptids that lack cladia or characters of other monograptine genera (Bulman 1970). Ni & Jiao (1983) used the name Monograptus for a lineage with a long conical sicula, usually with a dorsal tongue, and uniform thecae of the uncinatus type. The type species of Monograptus, M. priodon, has a relatively straight rhabdosome, and aome authors have separated species with a strongly curved and/or spiral rhabdosome into separate genera such as Spirograptus, Oktavites and Campograptus. This distinction was not accepted by Bulman & Rickards (1970) who noted that the finer thecal morphology of many of these spiral forms was poorly known.

<==Monograptus Geinitz 1852NJ83 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. uncinatus Tullberg 1883NJ83, ZL97
    `--+--M. uniformisNJ83
       |    |--M. u. uniformisK83
       |    `--M. u. angustidensK83
       `--+--M. thomasi Jaeger 1970NJ83, R93
          |    |--M. t. thomasiNJ83
          |    `--M. t. lijiangensis Ni & Jiao 1983NJ83
          `--+--M. yukonensis Jackson & Lenz 1963 [=M. (Metamonograptus) yukonensis]NJ83
             |    |--M. y. yukonensisNJ83
             |    |--M. y. fangensis [=M. (Metamonograptus) yukonensis fangensis]NJ83
             |    `--M. y. mitis Ni & Jiao 1983NJ83
             `--M. yunnanensis Ni & Jiao 1983NJ83
Monograptus incertae sedis:
  *M. priodon (Bronn 1835) [=*Lomatoceras priodon, *Pomatograptus priodon]B70
  M. acinaces [incl. M. rheidolensis]BR70
  M. aequabilisB70
  M. anerosus Koren’ 1983K83
  M. antennulariusBR70
  M. argutusBR70
  M. atavusBR70
  M. atopus Bouček 1952R93
  M. balaensis Koren’ 1983K83
  M. balticusK83
  M. beatus Koren’ 1983K83
  M. beckiB70
  M. belophorusK-D04
  M. boucekiB70
  M. chimaeraB79
  M. clinganiB70
  M. clintonensisEB01
  M. colonusB79
  M. communis Lapworth 1876BR70, B70 [=M. convolutus var. communisB70, *Campograptus communisBR70]
  M. convolutusB70
  M. crenulatusB79
  M. crinitusF71
  M. crispusB70 [=Streptograptus crispusK-D04]
  M. cyphusBR70 [=Coronograptus cyphusK-D04]
  M. daubeliB79
  M. difformisBR70
  M. discusB70
  M. dubiusF71
    |--M. d. dubiusB79
    `--M. d. thuringicusB79
  M. exiguusBR70
  M. falcariusH79
  M. firmusM14
  M. flemingii [incl. M. flemingii var. compactus]F71
  M. flexilisB79
  M. formosusNJ83
  M. fragmentalisJT12
  M. gregarius Lapworth 1876 [=*Coronograptus gregarius]BR70
  M. griestoniensisB79
  M. hercynicusB70
    |--M. h. hercynicusN79
    `--M. h. nevadensisN79
  M. huckeiB70
  *Lagarograptus’ inexpeditus Obut & Sobolevskaya 1968BR70
  M. kallimorphusK83
  M. knockensisB70
  M. kolihai Bouček 1931 [=*Mediograptus kolihai]BR70
  M. langgunensisNJ83
  M. latilobusJT12
  M. leptothecaBR70
  M. limatulusBR70
  M. lobiferusB70
  M. lochkovensisK83
  M. microdonXY86
    |--M. m. microdonK83
    |--M. m. aksajensis Koren’ 1983K83
    `--M. m. silesicusK83
  M. millepedaB79
  M. minimus [=Mediograptus minimus]BR70
    |--M. m. minimusBR70
    `--M. m. cautleyensisBR70
  M. mironovi Koren’ 1983K83
  M. mojiangensis Ni & Jiao 1983NJ83
  M. nimius Koren’ 1983K83
  M. pacificus Jaeger 1970R93
  M. palaB70
  M. paraformosusNJ83
  M. parultimusK83
  ‘Demirastrites’ pectinatusK-D04
  M. perneriB70
    |--M. p. perneriK83
    `--M. p. kasachstanensisK83
  M. pilosus (Jackson & Lenz 1972) [=Saetograptus pilosus]K83
  M. planusBR70
  M. praehercynicusB70
  M. prognatus Koren’ 1983K83
  M. pseudoplanusBR70
  M. revolutusBR70
  M. riccartonensisB70
  M. roemeriF71
  M. salweyiF71
  M. sandersoniBR70
  M. sedgwickiiZL97
  M. serratulus [=Graptolithus serratulus]W77
  M. similisK83
  M. spiralis (Geinitz 1842)B70 [=Graptolithus spiralisBR70, *Obutograptus spiralisBR70, *Oktavites spiralisBR70]
  M. supinus Koren’ 1983K83
  M. testis (Barrande 1850)BR70, B70 [=Graptolithus testisBR70, *Testograptus testisBR70]
  M. toernquistiBR70
  M. transgrediensB79
  M. triangulatus (Harkness 1851) [=Rastrites triangulatus, *Demirastrites triangulatus]BR70
    |--M. t. triangulatusB70
    |--M. t. extremusB70
    `--M. t. separatusB70
  M. tumescensF71
    |--M. t. tumescensB79
    `--M. t. minorB79
  M. ultimusW97
  M. variansBR70
  M. velesBR70
  M. vomerinusF71
  M. willowensis (Berry & Murphy 1975) [=Saetograptus willowensis]K83
  M. wimani Bouček 1932 [=*Globosograptus wimani]BR70
  M. yaliensisNJ83

Monograptus Geinitz 1852NJ83 [=Lomatoceras Bronn 1835 (nom. rej.)B70, MonograpsusM14, Monoprion Barrande 1850 (nom. rej.)B70, Pomatograptus Jaekel 1889B70; incl. Campograptus Obut 1949BR70, Coronograptus Obut & Sobolevskaya in Obut et al. 1968BR70, M14, Demirastrites Eisel 1912BR70, Globosograptus Bouček & Přibyl in Přibyl 1948BR70, M14, Lagarograptus Obut & Sobolevskaya in Obut et al. 1968BR70, M14, Mediograptus Bouček & Přibyl in Přibyl 1948BR70, M14, Obutograptus Mu 1955BR70, Oktavites Levina 1928BR70, Testograptus Přibyl 1967BR70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B79] Boucot, A. J. 1979. Silurian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A167–182. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[BR70] Bulman, O. M. B., & R. B. Rickards. 1970. Classification of the graptolite family Monograptidae Lapworth, 1873. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V149–V157. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[EB01] Eckert, J. D., & C. E. Brett. 2001. Early Silurian (Llandovery) crinoids from the Lower Clinton Group, western New York State. Bulletins of American Paleontology 360: 1–88.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[H79] House, M. R. 1979. Devonian in the Eastern Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A183–A217. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[JT12] Jeppsson, L., J. A. Talent, R. Mawson, A. Andrew, C. Corradini, A. J. Simpson, J. Wigforss-Lange & H. P. Schönlaub. 2012. Late Ludfordian correlations and the Lau Event. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 653–675. Springer.

[K83] Koren’, T. N. 1983. New Late Silurian monograptids from Kazakhstan (USSR). Palaeontology 26 (2): 407–434.

[K-D04] Kozłowska-Dawidziuk, A. 2004. Evolution of retiolitid graptolites—a synopsis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (4): 505–518.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[NJ83] Ni Y.-N. & Jiao S.-D. 1983. Lower Devonian graptolites from Yunnan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 22 (3): 295–307.

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R93] Rickards, R. B. 1993. Graptolithina. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 537–542. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W97] Wang N. 1997. Restudy of thelodont microfossils from the lower part of the Cuifengshan Group of Qujing, eastern Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 1–17.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[XY86] Xu H.-K. & Yao Z.-G. 1986. The Lower Devonian and its brachiopods from Lingshan, Guangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 25 (2): 169–179.

[ZL97] Zhang Y. & A. C. Lenz. 1997. Uppermost Wenlock and Ludlow graptolites from southern Yunnan, China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 34: 1220–1238.

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