Fruit of cluster fig Ficus racemosa, photographed by Ethel Aardvark.

Belongs within: Rosales.
Contains: Ficus subgenus Ficus, Ficus section Oreosycea, Ficus section Conosycea, Ficus section Malvanthera.

The Moraceae—mulberries, figs and related taxa—are a mostly tropical family of plants bearing compound fruits and with milky sap. Fossil species have been assigned to this family going back to the Upper Cretaceous, though the affinities of pre-Eocene taxa might be considered questionable (Collinson et al. 1993).

In the genus Ficus, figs, the compound inflorescence has become enclosed within a syconium, and the flowers are pollinated by minute wasps of the Chalcidoidea that enter the syconium through an ostiole to lay their eggs therein.

Other noteworthy members of the family include Artocarpus, a southeast Asian genus whose members may produce very large fruits, including the breadfruit A. altilis and jackfruit A. heterophyllus. Species of Morus, the mulberries, are also widely grown for their edible fruits, and the white mulberry M. alba is cultivated as the primary food source for the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori. Members of the genera Dorstenia and Fatoua are herbs.

Characters (from R. P. Wunderlin): Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines , deciduous or evergreen, frequently with milky sap. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite or whorled), simple; stipules present, persistent or caducous; petiole adaxially grooved. Leaf blade: margins entire, toothed, or lobed; venation pinnate or with 3–5 basal palmate veins; cystoliths often present in epidermal cells. Inflorescences racemes, cymes, or capitula. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, small, occasionally on flattened torus, more often enclosed within fleshy, flask-shaped receptacle (syconium); sepals 2–6, distinct or partly connate (vestigial in Brosimum). Staminate flowers: stamens equal in number to sepals or calyx lobes and opposite them, straight or inflexed; anthers 1–2-locular. Pistillate flowers: sepals or calyx lobes 4, more or less connate; pistils 1, 1–2-carpellate; ovary 1, superior or inferior, 1(–2)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles or style branches 1–2; stigmas 1–2, entire. Fruits multiple (syncarps); individual achenes or drupelets partly or completely enclosed by enlarged common receptacle or by individual calyces.

    |--Chlorophora tintoriaK06
    |--Cudrania javanensisYY22, C16
    |--Musanga smithiiYY22, RN72
    |--Pouroma cecropiaefoliaYY22, W92
    |--Sorocea ilicifoliaYY22, RJ11
    |--Fatoua villosaLK14
    |--Becktonia hantonensisJD05
    |--Castilla elasticaPL12
    |--Trophis scandensB00
    |--Arthmiocarpus hesperus (Wieland) Delevoryas 1964CBH93
    |--Combretiphyllum acuminatum Menzel 1909CBH93
    |--Debeya serrata Miquel 1853CBH93
    |    |--M. cochinchinensis [=Cudrania cochinchinensis]H90
    |    `--M. pomiferaH93
    |    |--B. alicastrumVKC07
    |    `--B. terrabanumF55
    |    |--B. papyrifera [incl. B. kasinoki]LO98
    |    `--B. rugosaJD05
    |    |--M. scandensH90
    |    `--M. tortuosaH09
    |--Paratrophis Blume 1852A61
    |    |--P. banksii Cheesem. 1906 [incl. P. heterophylla var. elliptica Kirk 1897]A61
    |    |--P. microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 (see below for synonymy)A61
    |    `--P. smithii Cheesem. 1888A61
    |    |--M. albaHQC03
    |    |--M. indicaC55
    |    |--M. nigraR-CT01
    |    `--M. rubraHQC03
    |    |--D. brauniiJ54
    |    |--D. crispaJ54
    |    |    |--D. c. var. crispaJ54
    |    |    `--D. c. var. lancifoliaJ54
    |    |--D. embergeriS00
    |    |--D. gigasJ54
    |    `--D. psilurusHQC03
    |    |--S. asperP03
    |    |--S. banksiiG01
    |    |--S. brunonianus [incl. S. pendulinus]H90
    |    |--S. glaber (Merr.) Corner 1962 (see below for synonymy)S77
    |    |--S. heterophyllusBKS98
    |    |--S. indicusD95
    |    |--S. sandwicensisD95
    |    `--S. smithiiD95
    |    |--A. altilisP88
    |    |--A. blumeiT-W89
    |    |--A. chaplashaYZ02
    |    |--A. communisK03
    |    |--A. elasticusK03
    |    |--A. heterophyllusP88
    |    |--A. hirsutaH72
    |    |--A. incisaBMM99
    |    |--A. integerK03
    |    |--A. integrifoliaRH01
    |    |--A. lakoochaDD73
    |    |--A. odoratissimusK03
    |    `--A. tamaranK03
         |  i. s.: F. acamptophyllaH03
         |         F. aculeataLK14
         |           |--F. a. var. aculeataLK14
         |           `--F. a. var. indecoraLK14
         |         F. americana Aublet 1775 [incl. F. perforata Linnaeus 1775 (nom. rej. prop.)]B03
         |         F. aphanoneuraBMM99
         |         F. arnottianaSR07
         |         F. aurantiaceaK03
         |         F. auriculataDD73
         |         F. beccariiK03
         |         F. benghalensisB00
         |         F. bennettii Seem. 1868URK03
         |         F. bonijesulapensisC-SQ08
         |         F. caatingaeS-SR09
         |         F. caricaB00
         |         F. chandleriJD05
         |         F. chauvieri Nicholson 1885URK03
         |         F. citrifolia Miller 1768 [incl. F. caribaea Jacquin 1767 (nom. rej. prop.)]B03
         |         F. clusiifoliaF11
         |         F. comosaB88
         |         F. cookiiH11
         |         F. cooperi Veitch 1862URK03
         |         F. coronulataLK14
         |         F. cotinifoliaF11
         |         F. craterostomaG02
         |         F. cuspidataB88
         |         F. cyrtophyllaDD73
         |         F. deltoideaH03
         |           |--F. d. var. deltoideaH03
         |           `--F. d. var. ovoideaH03
         |         F. dottataC55
         |         F. elasticaP88
         |         F. eucalyptoides Batt. & Trab. 1911D17
         |         F. fistulosaV25
         |         F. fulvaH03
         |         F. glomerataB00
         |         F. hemsleyanaW00
         |         F. hillyiWEE70
         |         F. hirtaDD73
         |         F. indicaC06
         |         F. laevigataSWK87
         |         F. leucocarpaC55
         |         F. longkdcensisDD73
         |         F. luteaD17
         |         F. lyrataB00
         |         F. macrocarpa Léveillé & Vaniot 1907R-SN07
         |         F. microsiceH03
         |         F. microstomaH03
         |         F. minahassaeR02
         |         F. moorei Seem. 1868URK03
         |         F. mysorensisK72
         |         F. natalensisB00
         |         F. neriifoliaDD73
         |           |--F. n. var. neriifoliaDD73
         |           `--F. n. var. nemoralisDD73
         |         F. nitidaA78
         |         F. obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 (see below for synonymy)B03
         |         F. oppositaB00
         |         F. padifoliaF11
         |         F. palmataSS72
         |         F. parietalisH03
         |         F. pertusa Linnaeus 1782B03
         |         F. planchonellaefolia Guillaumin 1967 (nom. illeg.)URK03
         |         F. podocarpifoliaLK14
         |         F. polymorphaC55
         |         F. pomiferaDD73
         |         F. pretoriaeHQC03
         |         F. prolixa [incl. F. forsteriana, F. stipulacea Forster 1786 (n. n.) non Noronha 1790]URK03
         |         F. prostrataDD73
         |         F. pseudosycamorusKAA-W00
         |         F. pubigeraDD73
         |           |--F. p. var. pubigeraDD73
         |           `--F. p. var. malliformisDD73
         |         F. pumilaB00
         |         F. punctataA78
         |         F. recurvaA78
         |         F. religiosaP88
         |         F. salicifoliaH75
         |         F. scabraB96
         |         F. scandensYZ02
         |         F. scobinaLK14
         |         F. semicordata [incl. F. cunea]DD73
         |         F. smithii Horne ex Baker 1883URK03
         |           |--F. s. var. smithiiURK03
         |           `--F. s. var. robustaURK03
         |         F. solanderi Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |         F. sphaerocarpaB88
         |         F. subincisa [incl. F. clavata]DD73
         |         F. surB06
         |         F. sycomorusB88
         |         F. teloukatD17
         |         F. thonningiiB88
         |         F. uniglandulosaH03
         |         F. virensB00
         |           |--F. v. var. virensH90
         |           `--F. v. var. sublanceolataH90
         |--F. subg. FicusB88
         |--F. subg. PharmacosyceaD03
         |    |  i. s.: F. albipidaD03
         |    |         F. maxima Miller 1768 (see below for synonymy)B03
         |    `--F. sect. OreosyceaB88
         |--F. (subg. Sycomorus) racemosaD03
         |    |--F. r. var. racemosaK03
         |    `--F. r. var. elongataK03
         `--F. subg. UrostigmaD03
              |  i. s.: F. aurea Nuttall 1846 [incl. F. ciliolosa Link 1822 (nom. rej. prop.)]B03
              |--F. sect. UrostigmaB88
              |    |--F. caulocarpaB88
              |    |--F. infectoriaB88
              |    |--F. prasinicarpaB88
              |    `--F. superbaB88
              |         |--F. s. var. superbaB88
              |         |--F. s. var. henneanaH90
              |         `--F. s. var. japonicaB88
              |--F. sect. ConosyceaB88
              `--F. sect. MalvantheraD03

Ficus maxima Miller 1768 [=F. maximus; incl. F. citrifolia Lamarck 1788 non Miller 1768, F. plumieri Urban 1918, F. glaucescens (Liebm.) Miquel 1867, F. radula Willdenow 1806, F. suffocans Grisebach 1859]B03

Ficus obtusiuscula (Miquel) Miquel 1867 [incl. Pharmacosycea perforata Miquel 1848, F. perforata (Miquel) Miquel 1867 non Linnaeus 1775]B03

Paratrophis microphylla (Raoul) Cockayne 1915 [=Epicarpurus microphyllus Raoul 1844, Taxotrophis microphylla (Raoul) Muell. 1868; incl. Paratrophis heterophylla Blume 1852, Trophis opaca Banks & Sol. ex Hooker 1854 (n. d.), P. opaca Cheeseman 1925]A61

Streblus glaber (Merr.) Corner 1962 [=Gironniera glabra Merr. 1906, Chevalierodendron glabrum Leroy 1948, Paratrophis glabra Steen 1934; incl. Aphananthe negrosensis Elmer 1909, Calaunia negrosensis (Elmer) Grudz. 1964]S77

*Type species of generic name indicated


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