Morphinae

Blue morpho Morpho menelaus, copyright Derkarts.

Belongs within: Nymphalidae.

The Morphinae are an Indo-Australian and Neotropical lineage of butterflies in which the fore wings have the discal cell closed and without swollen veins. Subgroups include the Indo-Australian Amathusiini whose larvae feed on cycads and various monocotyledons (Braby 2000).

<==Morphinae [Morphidae]
|--Amathusiini [Amathusiinae]WWN03
| |--Stichophthalma howquaWWN03
| |--MorphopsisJ03
| |--HyantisJ03
| |--FaunisJ03
| |--AmathusiaG20
| | |--A. phidippus [=Satyrus (Amathusia) phidippus]G20
| | `--A. teucer [=Satyrus (Amathusia) teucer]G20
| `--Taenaris Hübner 1819B00
| |--T. artemis (Snellen van Vollenhoven 1860)B00
| | |--T. a. artemisB00
| | |--T. a. jamesi Butler 1877B00
| | `--T. a. queenslandica Rothschild 1916B00
| |--T. catops (Westwood 1851)B00
| | |--T. c. catopsB00
| | `--T. c. turdula Fruhstorfer 1914B00
| `--T. horsfieldiJ03
`--+--Morpho [Morphini]WWN03
| |--M. achilles (Linnaeus 1764)S55 [=Nymphalis (Morpho) achillesG20]
| |--M. cyprisGE05
| |--M. deidamiaS55
| | |--M. d. deidamiaS55
| | `--M. d. electra Röber 1902S55
| |--M. marcus (Schaller 1785)B08
| |--M. menelaus (Linnaeus 1758)S55 [=Nymphalis (Morpho) menelausG20]
| |--M. patroclus Hopffer 1874S55
| | |--M. p. patroclusS55
| | `--M. p. papirius Hopffer 1874S55
| |--M. peleidesWWN03
| | |--M. p. peleidesFS54
| | `--M. p. hyacinthus Butler 1866FS54
| `--M. rhetenorS55
| |--M. r. rhetenorS55
| `--M. r. cacica Staudinger 1876S55
`--Brassolini [Brassolidae, Brassolinae]WWN03
|--BrassolisS55
| |--B. caesias [=Satyrus (Brassolis) caesias]G20
| `--B. sophoraeS55
| |--B. s. sophoraeS55
| `--B. s. ardens Stichel 1903S55
|--CaligoWWN03
| |--C. illioneusS55
| | |--C. i. illioneusS55
| | `--C. i. praxsiodus Fruhstorfer 1912S55
| `--C. memnon (Felder 1866)FS54
`--OpsiphanesS55
|--O. batea (Hübner 1822)S55
|--O. berecynthiaS55
| |--O. b. berecynthiaS55
| `--O. b. adjecta Stichel 1906S55
|--O. cassiaeC90
|--O. quiteria (Stoll 1782)S55
`--O. tamarindiFS54
|--O. t. tamarindiFS54
`--O. t. sikyon Fruhstorfer 1912FS54

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C90] Caracciolo, M. 1890. Détails complémentaires sur les métamorphoses de lépidoptères de Trinidad. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: clxxviii.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143–156.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

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