Murex

 Venus comb murex Murex pecten, copyright Samuel Chow.

Belongs within: Muricidae.

Murex is an Indo-Pacific genus of marine gastropods with shells bearing three spinose varices and a long siphonal canal. In most species there are numerous long spines on the siphonal canal though M. brevispina bears short spines on the basal half of the canal only (Wilson 1994).

Characters (from Wilson 1994): Siphonal canal subtubular, almost closed, as long as or longer than length of spire plus aperture; trivaricate, varices with simple non-ramose spines; outer lip usually with prominent labral tooth, inner lip narrow and smooth; operculum with terminal to subcentral nucleus, growth lines simple or lamellate.

<==Murex Linnaeus 1758RD75 (see below for synonymy)
    |--M. (Murex)O27 [incl. Acupurpura Jousseaume 1880RD75]
    |    |--*M. (M.) tribulus Linnaeus 1758BR17 [=*Tribulus tribulusW94; incl. M. pecten Montfort 1810 non Lightfoot 1786RD75]
    |    |--M. (M.) acanthostephes Watson 1883W94
    |    |--M. (M.) brevispina Lamarck 1822 [=*Tubicaunda brevispina; incl. M. acanthodes Watson 1883]W94
    |    |    |--M. b. brevispinaW94
    |    |    |--M. b. macgillivrayi Dohrn 1862W94
    |    |    `--M. b. senilis Jousseaume 1874W94
    |    |--M. (M.) coppingeri Smith 1884W94
    |    |--M. (M.) kerslakae Ponder & Vokes 1988W94
    |    |--M. (M.) pecten Lightfoot 1786RD75 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. (M.) queenslandicus Ponder & Vokes 1988W94
    |    |--M. (M.) tenuirostrum Lamarck 1822W94
    |    |    |--M. t. tenuirostrumW94
    |    |    `--M. t. africanus Ponder & Vokes 1988W94
    |    `--M. (M.) ternispina Lamarck 1822 [incl. M. nigrispinosus Reeve 1845]W94
    |--M. (Aaronia Verrill 1950)RD75
    |    `--M. (*A.) strausi Verrill 1950RD75
    |--M. (Alipurpura Fischer 1884)O27, RD75
    |    |--M. (*A.) ‘acanthopterus’ Lamarck 1822 non M. acanthopterus Lamarck 1816RD75
    |    |--M. (A.) erinaceoides Valenciennes 1832O27
    |    |--M. (A.) rhyssa Dall 1919O27
    |    `--M. (A.) trialatus Sowerby 1841O27
    `--M. (Promurex Ponder & Vokes 1988)W94
         `--M. (*P.) antelmei Viader 1938W94

Murex incertae sedis:
  M. aciculigerC64
  M. aduncospinosus Reeve 1845H09
  M. alveolatus Sowerby 1823F27b
  M. ananas Hinds 1843H43
  M. antillarum Hinds 1843H43
  M. axicornis Lamarck 1822H09
  M. cabritii Bernardi 1859MP65
  M. californicus Hinds 1843H43
  M. capensisH43
  M. capitellum Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. centrifugusC64
  M. cervicornis Lamarck 1822H09
  M. cirrosus Hinds 1843H43
  M. confusa Brazier 1877H09
  M. cornutus Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. corrugatus Sowerby 1840H09
  M. eyrei T.-W. 1876F27a
  M. foveolatus Hinds 1843H43
  ‘Aranea’ gracilis Perry 1810RD75
  M. granulatus Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. granum Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. gravidus Hinds 1843H43
  M. hamatus Hinds 1843H43
  M. hystrix Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. irregularis Bellardi 1873F27b
  M. ligniarius Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. limaC64
  M. maurus Broderip 1833H09
  M. microphyllus Lamarck 1822H09
  M. monocerosH43
  M. motacillaH43
  M. multiplicatus Sowerby 1895H09
  M. mundus Reeve 1846H09
  M. neozelanicusH86
  M. nigrescensC64
  M. nigritusC64
  M. nigrospinosus Reeve 1845WG71
  M. nuceusG79
  M. nuttaliH43
  M. olearius Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. pellucidus Reeve 1845H09
  M. peritus Hinds 1843H43
  M. pholidotus Watson 1883H09
  M. pinnigerH43
  M. pomiformis [incl. M. asperrimus]G79
  M. pomum Gmelin 1791MS78
  M. ponderosusC64
  M. pumilus Broderip 1833 (n. d.)ED65
  M. pusio Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. quadrifronsMS78
  M. radicatus Hinds 1843H43
  M. recticornis von Martens 1880H09
  M. recurvirostrisC64
  M. reticularis Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. rigidus [=Turbinella rigida; incl. Buccinum nodatum, Murex nodatus]C64
  M. rosariumH43
  M. rubidus Baker 1897 [=M. messorius var. rubidum]MP65
  M. salmoC64
  M. salmoneus Melvill & Standen 1899H09
  M. sanguineus [incl. Turbinella varicosa]C64
  M. sauliae Sowerby 1840H09
  M. saxatilis Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. scaber (Martyn 1789) [=Purpura scabra]H09
  M. scrobiculator Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. similisG79
  M. surinamensis Okutani 1982V90
  M. syracusanus Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. taeniatus Sby. 1859C64
  M. territus Reeve 1845H09
  M. tetragonus Broderip 1833H09
  M. torrefactusMS78
  M. tortuusC64
  M. trapa Röding 1798S11
  M. trapezium Linnaeus 1758L58
  M. tricolorC64
  M. turbinellus Linnaeus 1758L58

Murex Linnaeus 1758RD75 [=Tribulus Kobelt 1877 non Klein in Bruguière 1792W94; incl. Aranea Perry 1810 non Linnaeus 1758W94, Tubicaunda Jousseaume 1880W94]

Murex (Murex) pecten Lightfoot 1786RD75 [=*Aranea pectenW94; incl. M. tenuispina Lamarck 1822RD75, *Acupurpura tenuispinaRD75, Aranea triremis Perry 1811H09, WG71, M. triremisWG71]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[ED65] Emerson, W. K., & A. D’Attilio. 1965. Aspella (Favartia) angermeyerae, n. sp. Nautilus 79 (1): 1–4.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. Additions to Recent molluscan fauna of New Zealand, no. 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 485–487.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H43] Hinds, R. B. 1843. On new species of Scalaria and Murex. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 124–129.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[MS78] Moore, E. A., & F. Sander. 1978. Spawning and early life history of Murex pomum Gmelin, 1791. Veliger 20 (3): 251–259.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[V90] Vokes, E. H. 1990. Two new species of Chicoreus subgenus Siratus (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from northeastern Brazil. Nautilus 103 (4): 124–130.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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