Muricidae

Candelabrum trophon Boreotrophon candelabrum, copyright Worldwide Conchology.

Belongs within: Neogastropoda.
Contains: Zeatrophon, Axymene, Terefundus, Poirieria, Typhinae, Muricopsis, Favartia, Murexiella, Coralliophilinae, Ocenebra, Nucella, Trophon, Rapaninae, Ergalataxinae, Dermomurex, Pteropurpura, Haustellum, Pterynotus, Murex, Chicoreus, Siratus.

The Muricidae are a group of predatory marine gastropods that often possess strongly developed varices on the shell that may bear prominent spines, flanges or other ornaments. Members possess an accessory boring organ in the sole of the foot that secretes a compound used to soften the shells of mollusc prey, allowing the muricid’s radula to erode a hole through the shell. They also produce a purple secretion from the hypobranchial organ used in defense. Within the Muricidae, members of the subfamily Muricinae are characterised by a long, straight siphonal canal and spinose or frondose varices. The Trophoninae have a similarly elongate siphonal canal but possess numerous laminate varices. The Trophoninae and the related subfamily Ocenebrinae have a similar rachidian tooth morphology but Ocenebrinae (which include forms both with and without varices) have bifid marginal teeth at maturity. Ergalatax is a genus with a short fusiform shell with a short canal and rounded axial ribs overlain by spiral lirae.

<==Muricidae [Muricedae, Muricoidea, Trophonidae, Typhididae]BR17
|--+--OcenebrinaeZLK11
| | |--OcenebraBR05
| | |--NucellaZLK11
| | `--Ecphora Conrad 1843 [Ecphorinae]BR05
| | |--*E. (Ecphora) quadricostata (Say 1824) [=Fusus quadricostatus]RA75
| | `--E. (Planecphora) delicata Petuch 1989P12
| `--TrophoninaeZLK11
| |--TrophonBD12
| |--Enatimene Iredale 1929W94
| | `--*E. simplex (Hedley 1903)W94 [=Trophon simplexW94, Murex simplexRA75]
| |--Gemixystus Iredale 1929W94
| | `--*G. laminatus (Petterd 1884) [=Trophon laminatus]RA75
| |--Ollaphon Iredale 1929W94
| | `--*O. molorthus (Hedley & May 1908) [=Trophon molorthus]RA75
| |--Xenotrophon Iredale 1929W94
| | `--*X. euschema (Iredale 1929) [=Trophon euschema]RA75
| |--Anatrophon Iredale 1929W94
| | |--*A. sarmentosa (Hedley & May 1908) [=Trophon sarmentosus]W94
| | `--A. latior (Verco 1909)W94
| |--Benthoxystus Iredale 1929W94
| | |--*B. columnarius (Hedley & May 1908) [=Trophon columnarius]RA75
| | `--B. recurvatus (Verco 1909)W94
| |--Enixotrophon Iredale 1929W94
| | |--*E. carduelis (Watson 1886) [=Trophon carduelis]W94
| | `--E. obtusiliratum (Schepman 1911)W94
| |--Apixystus Iredale 1929W94
| | |--*A. stimuleus (Hedley 1907) [=Trophon stimuleus]RA75
| | |--A. plicilaminatus (Verco 1909)W94
| | `--A. segmentatus (Verco 1909)W94
| |--Litozamia Iredale 1929W94
| | |--*L. rudolphi (Brazier 1894)RA75, W94 [=Peristernia rudolphiRA75]
| | |--L. brazieri (Tenison Woods 1875)W94
| | |--L. longior (Verco 1909)W94
| | `--L. petterdi (Crosse 1870)W94
| `--Boreotrophon Fischer 1884ZLK11, RA75
| |--*B. clathrata (Linné 1767)RA75 (see below for synonymy)
| |--B. bentleyiB56
| |--B. candelabrumGAS03
| |--B. triangulatusB56
| `--B. xestraZLK11
`--+--+--RapaninaeZLK11
| `--+--ErgalataxinaeZLK11
| `--Drupella Thiele 1925ZLK11, WG71
| |--D. cornus (Röding 1798)BW09 [incl. Purpura elata Blainville 1832H08, *D. elataW94]
| |--D. margariticola (Broderip in Broderip & Sowerby 1833)WBS-S15
| |--D. minuta Fujioka 1984BC01
| |--D. ochrostoma (Blainville 1832)RA75 (see below for synonymy)
| `--D. rugosa (Born 1778) [incl. D. concatenatus Lamarck 1822, D. fragum Blainville 1832]W94
`--Muricinae [Murexia]ZLK11
| i. s.: DermomurexV95
| PteropurpuraO27
| Trialatella Berry 1964PP78, RA75
| `--*T. cunninghamae Berry 1964RA75 [=Aspella (Trialatella) cunninghamaePP78]
| Attiliosa Emerson 1968W94
| |--*A. incompta (Berry 1960) [=Coralliophila incompta]RA75
| |--A. aldridgei (Usticke 1969) [=Vasum aldridgei]BC01
| |--A. carmen (Lowe 1935)PP78
| `--A. nodulifera (Sowerby 1841)W94
| HaustellumW94
| Hexaplex Swainson 1833W94, BC01 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*H. cichoreus (Gmelin 1791)RA75 [=Murex cichoreumW94; incl. *H. foliacea Perry 1811W94]
| |--H. conatus (McMichael 1964) [=Murexsul conatus]W94
| |--H. kusterianus [=Muricanthus kusterianus]BC01
| | |--H. k. kusterianusBC01
| | `--H. k. bozzadamii (Franchi 1990) [=Muricanthus kusterianus bozzadamii]BC01
| |--H. rileyi D’Attilio & Myers 1984BC01
| `--H. stainforthi (Reeve 1843)W94 (see below for synonymy)
| Naquetia Jousseaume 1880W94
| |--*N. triqueter (Born 1778)W94 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--N. t. triqueterW94
| | `--N. t. vokesae Houart 1986W94
| |--N. barclayi (Reeve 1858) [incl. N. annandalei Preston 1910]W94
| |--N. cumingii (Adams 1853) (see below for synonymy)W94
| |--N. fosteri D’Attilio & Hertz 1987BC01
| `--N. permaesta (Hedley 1915) [=Pterynotus (Naquetia) permaestus]WG71
| PterynotusW94
|--MurexZLK11
`--+--+--ChicoreusZLK11
| `--Bolinus Pusch 1837S11, RA75 [=Rhinocantha Adams & Adams 1853RA75]
| |--*B. brandaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Murex brandaris, *Rhinocantha brandaris]RA75
| `--B. cornutus (Linné 1758)LB12
`--+--SiratusZLK11
`--Muricanthus Swainson 1840ZLK11, RA75 [=Centronotus Swainson 1833 non Schneider 1801RA75]
|--*M. radix (Gmelin 1791)RA75 [=Murex radixRA75, *Centronotus radixRA75; incl. Murex melanomathosC64]
`--‘Murex’ duplex Röding 1798 [incl. M. eurystomus Swainson 1833, Centronotus eurystomus]RA75

Muricidae incertae sedis:
Ocinebrellus Jousseaume 1880AV03, RA75 [=Ternaria Coen 1943RA75]
|--*O. eurypteron (Reeve 1845) [=Murex eurypteron, *Ternaria eurypteron]RA75
|--O. aduncusAV03
`--O. nagaokaiAV03
Uttleya Marwick 1934P66
|--*U. arcana Marwick 1934RA75
|--U. ahiparana (Powell 1927)P61
|--U. marwicki Powell 1952P61
`--U. williamsi Powell 1952P66
Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 non Fr. 1818 (ICBN)AV03, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
|--*C. nuttallii (Conrad 1837) [=Murex (*Cerastoma) nuttallii, *Spinostoma nuttalli]RA75
|--C. burnettiAV03 [=Cerastoma foliatum var. burnettiiC64]
|--C. foliatum (Martyn 1784)AV03, O27 (see below for synonymy)
|--C. inornatumCH97
`--C. monocerosC64
Xymene Iredale 1915P61 [=Kalydon Hutton 1884 (nom. rej.)RA75]
|--*X. plebeia (Hutton 1873)RA75 [=Fusus plebeiusRA75, Trophon (*Kalydon) plebejusF27a, RA75]
|--‘Ricinula’ adelaidensis [=Kalydon adelaidensis]H08
|--X. ambiguusHS01
|--X. drewi (Hutton 1883) [=Cominella drewi]F27a
|--X. expansa (Hutton 1883) [=Trophon expansus]F27a
|--X. inferus (Hutton 1873)P61 [=Fusus inferusF27a, Trophon (Kalydon) inferusF27a]
|--‘Purpura’ neglecta [=Kalydon neglecta]H08
|--X. pulcherrima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Xanthochorus) pulcherrimus]F27a
`--X. traversiHS01
ZeatrophonP61
Xymenella Finlay 1927P61
|--*X. pusilla (Suter 1907)RA75 [=Trophon (Trophonopsis) pusillusF27a]
|--X. asperula Powell & Bartrum 1929PB29
|--X. gouldi (Cossmann 1903) [=Trophon gouldi, Xymene oliveri Marwick 1924]F27b
|--X. inambitiosa Marwick 1929PB29
|--X. lepida (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) lepidus]F27a
|--X. minutissima (Suter 1917) [=Trophon (Kalydon) minutissimus]F27a
`--X. suteri (Marshall & Murdoch 1921) [=Cymatium suteri]F27a
Paratrophon Finlay 1927P61
|--*P. cheesemani (Hutton 1882)RA75 [=Polytropa cheesemaniRA75, Trophon (Xanthochorus) cheesemaniF27a]
|--P. exsculptus Powell 1933P61
|--P. patens (Hombron & Jacquinot 1854)P61
|--P. quoyiHS01
`--P. stangeri (Gray 1843)P61 (see below for synonymy)
AxymeneP61
Comptella Finlay 1927P61
|--*C. curta (Murdoch 1905)RA75 [=Trophon (Kalydon) curtaD56, T. (K.) curtusF27a]
|--C. coronata Dell 1956P61
`--C. devia (Suter 1908)P61 [=Mangilia deviaF27a]
TerefundusP61
Vesanula Finlay 1926F27a
|--*V. chaskanon (Finlay 1926) [=Trophon chaskanon]RA75
|--V. maorum (M. & M. 1923) [=Columbarium maorum]F27a
|--V. tegens (Hutton 1877)F27a
`--V. vegrandis (M. & M. 1923) [=Pagodula vegrandis]F27a
Hadriania Bucquoy & Dautzenberg 1882F27b, RA75
|--H. craticuloides Vokes 1964 (see below for synonymy)RA75
`--H. basedowi Cossmann 1903 [=Murex irregularis Tate 1888 non Bellardi 1873]F27b
Urosalpinx Stimpson 1865O27
`--*U. cinereus (Say 1822) [=Fusus cinereus]RA75
|--U. c. cinereusD88
`--U. c. follyensis Baker 1951D88
Eupleura Adams & Adams 1853O27
|--*E. caudata (Say 1822) [=Ranella caudata]RA75
| |--E. c. caudataD88
| `--E. c. etterae Baker 1951D88
`--E. grippi Dall 1911O27
Forreria Jousseaume 1880O27
`--*F. belcheri (Hinds 1844)RA75 [=Murex belcheriRA75, Chorus belcheriO27, M. (Hemifusus) belcheriC64]
Brocchitas Finlay 1927DK08
`--*B. exilis (Tate 1888)DK08 (see below for synonymy)
Pseudosalpinx Olsson, Harbison et al. 1953RA75
`--*P. floridana (Conrad 1837)RA75 [=Urosalpinx floridanaO27; incl. Murex ostrearum Conrad 1846RA75]
Rugotyphis Vella 1961RA75
`--*R. francescae (Finlay 1924)RA75 [=Typhis francescaeF27a]
Pagodula Monterosato 1884MG-H11, RA75 [Pagodulinae]
|--*P. echinata (Kiener 1840) [=Fusus echinatus]BR17
|--P. carduelis (Watson 1886)MG-H11
`--P. vaginata (Cristofori & Jan 1832) [=Murex vaginata]RA75
Bizetiella Radwin & D’Attilio 1972BC01, RA75
|--*B. carmen (Lowe 1935) [=Tritonalia carmen]RA75
`--B. shaskyi Radwin & D’Attilio 1972BC01
Calotrophon Hertlein & Strong 1951BC01, RA75
|--‘Tritonalia’ turrita Dall 1919 [incl. *Calotrophon bristolae Hertlein & Strong 1951]RA75
`--C. andrewsi Vokes 1976BC01
Distichotyphis Keen & Campbell 1964BC01
`--*D. vemae Keen & Campbell 1964BC01
Haustellotyphis Jousseaume 1880BC01, RA75
|--*H. cumingi (Broderip 1833) [=Typhis cumingi]RA75
`--H. wendita Hertz 1995BC01
Ocinebrina Jousseaum 1880BC01, RA75 (see below for synonymy)
|--O. aciculata (Lamarck 1822)D88 (see below for synonymy)
`--O. adansoni Kosuge & Fernandes 1989BC01
PoirieriaBC01
Daphnellopsis Schepman 1913BK11, P66
|--*D. lamellosa Schepman 1913P66
`--D. murex Hedley 1922P66
Concepcionella Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000BD12
`--*C. bonillana Bandel & Stinnesbeck 2000BD12
PterymarchiaBD12
|--P. martinetanaFG19
`--P. tripterus (Born 1778)BD12
Haustrum Perry 1811BR05 [=Lepsia Hutton 1884RA75; HaustrinaeBR05]
|--*H. zelandicum Perry 1811BR17
|--H. baileyana (Tenison Woods 1881) [=Neothais baileyana]W94
|--H. dentex Perry 1811C64
|--H. haustorium (Gmelin 1791)P61 (see below for synonymy)
`--H. pictum Perry 1811C64
Tripterotyphis Pilsbry & Lowe 1932 [Tripterotyphinae]BR05
|--*T. lowei (Pilsbry 1931)RA75 [=Typhis loweiRA75, Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) loweiPP78]
| |--T. l. loweiW94
| |--T. l. colemani (Ponder 1972)W94
| `--T. l. norfolkensis (Fleming 1962)W94
|--T. arcana (DuShane 1969) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) arcana]BC01
|--T. cancellata (Sowerby 1841) [=Typhis (Tripterotyphis) cancellatus]W64
|--T. fayae (Keen & Campbell 1964) [=Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) fayae]BC01
`--T. robustus (Verco 1895)W94
TyphinaeW64
MuricopsinaeDM88
|--MuricopsisBR05
|--FavartiaDM88
|--MurexiellaBC01
|--Homalocantha Mörch 1852W94
| |--*H. scorpio (Linnaeus 1758)RA75 (see below for synonymy)
| |--H. anatomica (Perry 1811) [incl. H. pele Pilsbry 1921, H. rota Mawe 1823]WG71
| |--H. secunda (Lamarck 1822) [incl. H. lamberti Poirier 1883]W94
| `--H. zamboi (Burch & Burch 1960) [=Murex (Homalocantha) anatomica zamboi]BC01
`--MurexsulBC01
‘Nassarina’ grayiR77
Chathamidia Dell 1956D56
`--*C. expeditionis Dell 1956RA75
Shaskyus Burch & Campbell 1963V77, RA75
`--*S. festivus (Hinds 1844)RA75 [=Murex (Triremis) festivusRA75, O27b]
CoralliophilinaeBR17
Aspella Mörch 1877BR05 [AspellinaeBR17]
|--*A. anceps (Lamarck 1822) [=Ranella anceps]RA75
|--A. paupercula (Adams 1850)EA65
|--A. platylaevis Radwin & D’Attilio 1976W94
|--A. ponderi Radwin & D’Attilio 1976W94
`--A. producta (Pease 1861)W94
Maxwellia Bailey 1950JB12, RA75
|--*M. gemma (Sowerby 1879)RA75 [=Murex gemmaRA75, Mu. (Triremis) gemmaO27]
`--M. angermeyerae (Emerson & D’Attilio 1965) [=Aspella (Favartia) angermeyerae]BC01
Neorapana Cooke 1918JB12, RA75
`--*N. muricata (Broderip 1832) [=Purpura muricata]RA75
Scalaspira Conrad 1862P12, RA75
`--*S. strumosa (Conrad 1862) [=Fusus strumosa]RA75
Lirosoma Conrad 1862P12
Chesatrophon Petuch 1988P12
Chesathais Petuch 1988P12
`--C. lindae Petuch 1988P12
Trisecphora patuxentia (Petuch 1988)P12
Mariasalpinx Petuch 1988P12
Patuxentrophon Petuch 1992P12
Stephanosalpinx Petuch 1988P12
`--S. candelabra Petuch 1988P12
Laevityphis Cossmann 1903P12, RA75
|--‘Typhis’ muticus Sowerby 1834 [incl. T. coronarius Deshayes 1865, *Laevityphis coronarius]RA75
`--L. acuticosta (Conrad 1830)P12
Ecphorosycon kalyx Petuch 1988P12
Phyllonotus Swainson 1833BC01, RA75
|--P. margaritensis (Abbott 1958)B59 (see below for synonymy)
|--P. bicolorC64
|--P. brassicaC64
|--P. eversoni D’Attilio, Myers & Shasky 1987BC01
|--P. nigritusC64
|--P. oculatus (Reeve 1845) [=Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) oculatus]V90
|--P. pomum (Gmelin 1791) [=Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum]V90
`--P. princepsC64
VokesimurexPMB15
|--V. dolichourus (Ponder & Vokes 1988)WBS-S15
`--V. lindajoyceae (Petuch 1987)PMB15
Indothais lacera (Born 1778)WBS-S15
Latiaxena ficula (Reeve 1848)WBS-S15
Reishia bitubercularis (Lamarck 1822)WBS-S15
Thalessa Adams & Adams 1853WBS-S15, RA75
|--*T. hippocastanum (Gmelin 1791) [=Murex hippocastanum, Purpura hypocastaneum (l. c.)]RA75
`--T. aculeata (Deshayes 1844)WBS-S15
Timbellus de Gregorio 1885WBS-S15, RA75
|--*T. latifolius (Bellardi 1872)RA75
`--T. bednalli (Brazier 1877)WBS-S15
Leptotrophon surprisensisFG19

*Boreotrophon clathrata (Linné 1767)RA75 [=Murex clathrataRA75, Tritonium (Trophon) clathratumC64, Trophon clathratusN79; incl. Tro. costatumJ64b, Tritonium gunneri Lovén 1846N79, Fusus gunneriC64, Trophon clathratus var. gunneriN79, F. peruvianusJ64b, Murex rumphiusJ64b, F. scalariformisJ64b, Trophon scalariformisJ64a]

Brocchitas exilis (Tate 1888)DK08 [=Fasciolaria exilisF27b, Fusus exilis nec Menke 1843 nec Philippi 1843 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)F27b, Latirofusus exilisF27b, Streptochetus exilisF27b, S. adelomorphus Cossmann 1901F27b]

Ceratostoma Hermannsen 1846 non Fr. 1818 (ICBN)AV03, RA75 [=Cerastoma Conrad 1837 non Latreille 1802RA75, Spinostoma Coen 1943RA75]

Ceratostoma foliatum (Martyn 1784)AV03, O27 [=Purpura foliataO27, Murex foliatusO27; incl. Cerostoma monodonC64, M. phyllopterusC64, M. tripterusC64]

Drupella ochrostoma (Blainville 1832)RA75 [=Drupa (Drupella) ochrostomaRA75, Purpura ochrostomaH09, Sistrum ochrostomaC64]

Hadriania craticuloides Vokes 1964 [incl. Murex craticulatus Brocchi 1814 non Linnaeus 1758, *Hadriania craticulata]RA75

Haustrum haustorium (Gmelin 1791)P61 [=Buccinum haustoriumRA75; incl. B. haustrum Martyn 1788 (nom. inv.)RA75, Haustrum haustrumRA75, *Lepsia haustrumRA75, Thais haustrumF27a]

Hexaplex Swainson 1833W94, BC01 [incl. Bassia Jousseaume 1880 nec All. 1766 (ICBN) nec Quoy & Gaimard 1830RA75, Bassiella Wenz 1941W94]

Hexaplex stainforthi (Reeve 1843)W94 [=Murex stainforthiRA75, *Bassia stainforthiRA75, *Bassiella stainforthiRA75]

*Homalocantha scorpio (Linnaeus 1758)RA75 [=Murex scorpioRA75; incl. H. digitatus Sowerby 1841W94, H. fauroti Jousseaume 1888W94, H. varicosus Sowerby 1834W94]

*Naquetia triqueter (Born 1778)W94 [=Murex triqueter RA75, Pterynotus (*Naquetia) triqueterWG71; incl. N. cancellata Röding 1798W94, N. flexuosa Perry 1811W94, N. roseotinctus Sowerby 1860W94, N. variegata Röding 1798W94]

Naquetia cumingii (Adams 1853) [incl. N. triqueter var. amanuensis Couturier 1907, N. trigonulus Lamarck 1822 non Lamarck 1816]W94

Ocinebrina Jousseaum 1880BC01, RA75 [incl. Corallinia Buzquoy & Dautzenberg in Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1882RA75]

Ocinebrina aciculata (Lamarck 1822)D88 [=Murex aciculatusRA75, *Corallinia aciculataRA75; incl. Fusus corallinus Scacchi 1836RA75, *Ocinebrina corallinaRA75]

Paratrophon stangeri (Gray 1843)P61 [=Fusus stangeriF27a, Trophon stangeriF27a, T. rugosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) (preoc.)F27a; incl. Polytropa retiaria Hutton 1878F27a]

Phyllonotus margaritensis (Abbott 1958)B59 [=Murex (Phyllonotus) margaritensisB59, M. imperialis Swainson 1831 non Fischer de Waldheim 1807RA75, *Phyllonotus imperialisRA75]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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