Musca

House fly Musca domestica, copyright Muhammad Mahdi Karim.

Belongs within: Muscinae.

Musca is a cosmopolitan genus of flies including the house fly M. domestica and related species. Members are non-metallic in coloration and typically have the M1 vein sharply bent towards R4+5 (Pont 1973).

Characters (from Pont 1973): Male head holoptic or subholoptic, female head dichoptic. Female frons without interfrontal setae, but with weak proclinate upper orbital setae. Arista long-plumose, the longest plumosity longer than length of third antennal segment. Face bare. Acrostichal setae 0 + 1. Dorsocentral setae 2–3 + 4–6(–7). One intra-alar seta. Post-alar declivity bare. Suprasquamal ridge with a tuft of short setulae at anterior (outer) end or wholly bare. Propleural depression haired or bare. Prosternum setulose. Prostigmatal seta present. Infra-alar bulla bare. Pteropleuron with subalar ridge setulose along most of length, setulae descending to sternopleural and hypopleural margins. Sternopleural 1 + 2. Hypopleuron bare on beret, haired or bare below spiracle, setulose on metepisternum. Metathoracic spiracle moderate, with black setae on posterior margin. Squamopleuron bare. Mid femur with 0 anterior and 2 posterior preapical setae. Mid tibia without posteroventral setae. Hind tibia with the dorsoapical bristle quite strong, the anterodorsal bristle short and fine, calcar short, equal to tibial depth, or absent; posteroventral apical bristle present but weak. Subcostal sclerite bare. Stem-vein with 1–4 setulae in basal part above, bare below or with a few fine hairs in basal part. Vein 1 bare. Vein 3 with a few setulae below or on both surfaces. Lower squama of Musca type, bare. Sternite 1 setulose or bare. Male aedeagus with epiphallus well developed, tip rounded, indented, or bifurcate; post-gonite well developed or minute; juxta without spines or teeth. Female ovipositor short or elongate; longitudinal struts of tergite 6 fused anteriorly or separated throughout; anterior halves of sternite 8 present, anterior and posterior halves fused or separate; spiracles absent; 3 spermathecae.

Musca Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Sphora Robineau-Desvoidy 1830]P73
|--*M. (Musca) domestica Linnaeus 1758F92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--M. d. domesticaP73
| |--M. d. callevaP73
| |--M. d. curviforcepsP73
| `--M. d. nebulo Fabricius 1794 [=Biomyia nebulo]P73
|--M. (Byomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830)C10, P73
| |--M. tempestiva Fallén 1817F92 [=M. (Plaxemya) tempestivaF92; incl. *Byomya violacea Robineau-Desvoidy 1830P73]
| |--M. (B.) afra Paterson 1956C10, P73
| `--M. (B.) vetustissima Walker 1849CM70, P73 (see below for synonymy)
|--M. (Eumusca Townsend 1911)F92
| |--M. (E.) amita Hebbig 1964 [incl. M. amica Zimin 1951]F92
| |--M. (E.) autumnalis De Geer 1776F92 [incl. M. corvina Fabricius 1781F92, M. ludificaL49, M. prashadi Patton 1922F92]
| |--M. (E.) craggi Patton 1922F92
| |--M. (E.) fergusoni Johnston & Bancroft 1920 [=Biomyia fergusoni, Viviparomusca fergusoni]P73
| |--M. (E.) fletcheri Patton & Senior-White 1924F92
| |--M. (E.) hervei Villeneuve 1922F92
| |--M. (E.) lusoria Wiedemann 1824P73
| |--M. (E.) malaisei Emden 1965F92
| |--M. (E.) seniorwhitei Patton 1922 [incl. Byomya tibiseta Malloch 1928]F92
| `--M. (E.) xanthomelas Wiedemann 1824P73, F92
|--M. (Lissosterna Bezzi 1922)F92
| |--M. (L.) asiatica Shinonaga & Kano 1977F92
| |--M. (L.) pattoni Austen 1910 (see below for synonymy)F92
| |--M. (L.) pilifacies Emden 1965 [incl. M. (L.) hoi Fan 1965]F92
| |--M. (L.) sorbens Wiedemann 1830F92 [incl. M. spectanda Wiedemann 1830P73]
| `--M. (L.) tibetana Fan 1978 [=M. (Plaxemya) tibetana]F92
|--M. (Plaxemya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830)F92
| |--M. (P.) cassara Pont 1973F92
| |--M. (P.) chui Fan 1965F92
| |--M. (P.) conducens Walker 1860F92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--M. (P.) confiscata Speiser 1924 [incl. M. fasciata Stein 1910]F92
| |--M. (P.) crassirostris Stein 1903F92 [=Philaematomyia crassirostrisA71; incl. P. insignis Austen 1909F92]
| |--M. (P.) ventrosa Wiedemann 1830F92 (see below for synonymy)
| `--M. (P.) vitripennis Meigen 1826F92
`--M. (Viviparomusca Townsend 1915)F92
|--M. (*V.) bezzii Patton & Cragg 1913P73
|--M. (V.) convexifrons Thomson 1869 [incl. M. gibsoni Patton & Cragg 1913, M. shanghaiensis Ôuchi 1938]F92
|--M. (V.) formosana Malloch 1925 [incl. M. greeni Patton 1933]F92
|--M. (V.) inferior Stein 1903F92
|--M. (V.) larvipara Portschinsky 1910F92
`--M. (V.) santoshi Joseph & Parui 1972F92

Musca incertae sedis:
M. aequinoctialis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. aestuans Linnaeus 1758L58
M. arbustorum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. arnicae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. australis Boisduval 1835B35
M. bicincta Linnaeus 1758L58
M. bombylans Linnaeus 1758L58
M. cardui Linnaeus 1758L58
M. cemiteriorum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. cerasi Linnaeus 1758L58
M. chamaeleon Linnaeus 1758L58
M. cibaria Linnaeus 1758L58
M. coleoptrata [=Thereva coleoptrata]L02
M. combinataL02
M. connexaL02
M. cupraria Linnaeus 1758L58
M. cyanophilaL02
M. cylindricaL02
M. diophthalma Linnaeus 1758L58
M. erratica Linnaeus 1758L58
M. fallax Linnaeus 1758L58
M. femorata Linnaeus 1758L58
M. festiva Linnaeus 1758L58
M. filiformisL02
M. fimetaria Linnaeus 1758L58
M. flava Linnaeus 1758L58
M. florescentiae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. frit Linnaeus 1758L58
M. frondescentiae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. frontalisL02
M. germinationis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. gibbosa Linnaeus 1758L58
M. glaucia Linnaeus 1758L58
M. grossificationis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. grossipesL02
M. heraclii Linnaeus 1758L58
M. hottentotta Linnaeus 1758L58
M. humilis Wiedemann 1830P73
M. hydroleon Linnaeus 1758L58
M. hyoscyami Linnaeus 1758L58
M. ichneumonea Linnaeus 1758L58 [=Mulio ichneumoneusL02]
M. illucens Linnaeus 1758L58
M. intricaria Linnaeus 1758L58
M. lappona Linnaeus 1758L58
M. larvarum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. lasiophthalmaC07
M. lateralis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. leprae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. longipesRJ93
M. lucorum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. marginataL02
M. maura Linnaeus 1758L58
M. mediana Wiedemann 1830P73
M. mellina Linnaeus 1758L58
M. menthastri Linnaeus 1758L58
M. meridionalisR26
M. microleon Linnaeus 1758L58
M. morio Linnaeus 1758L58
M. mutabilis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. mystacea Linnaeus 1758L58
M. nemorum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. noctiluca Linnaeus 1758L58
M. octopunctata Coquebert 1798C98
M. oestracea Linnaeus 1758L58
M. osirisS00
M. parietina Linnaeus 1758L58
M. pellucens Linnaeus 1758L58
M. pendula Linnaeus 1758L58
M. petronella Linnaeus 1758L58
M. planiceps Wiedemann 1824F92
M. planifronsL02
M. plebeja Linnaeus 1758L58
M. polita Linnaeus 1758L58
M. porcusL02
M. pubera Linnaeus 1758L58
M. rotundata Linnaeus 1758L58
M. saltuum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. scolopacea Linnaeus 1758L58
M. scripta Linnaeus 1758L58
M. segnis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. serrata Linnaeus 1758L58
M. serratulae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. solstitialis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. sphegea [=Syrphus sphegeus] L02
M. subsultansL02
M. sylvarum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. terraereginae Johnston & Bancroft 1920 (see below for synonymy)P73
M. transfuga Linnaeus 1758L58
M. tremulaL02
M. tringaria Linnaeus 1758L58
M. umbellatarumL02
M. umbelliferarumL02
M. umbrarum Linnaeus 1758L58
M. urticae Linnaeus 1758L58
M. vermileo Linnaeus 1758L58
M. vespiformis Linnaeus 1758L58
M. vibrans Linnaeus 1758L58
M. viduata Linnaeus 1758L58

Musca terraereginae Johnston & Bancroft 1920 [=Biomyia terraereginae, M. (Promusca) terraereginae; incl. M. hilli Johnston & Bancroft 1920, Biomyia hilli, M. (Promusca) hilli]P73

Musca (Byomya) vetustissima Walker 1849CM70, P73 [=Biomyia vetustissimaP73, Eumusca vetustissimaP73, Viviparomusca vetustissimaP73; incl. M. latifrons Wiedemann 1830 non Fallén 1817P73, M. prisca Walker 1849P73, M. pumila Macquart 1848 non Fallén 1825P73]

Musca (Lissosterna) pattoni Austen 1910 [incl. M. incerta Patton 922 non Walker 1852, M. spinosa Awati 1917, M. yerburyi Patton 1923]F92

*Musca (Musca) domestica Linnaeus 1758F92 [incl. M. antiquissima Walker 1849P73, Sphora australis Robineau-Desvoidy 1830P73, M. australis Macquart 1842 non Boisduval 1835P73, Biomyia australisP73, Eumusca australisP73, Musca flavipennis Bigot 1887H72, M. minor Macquart 1851 non Turton 1802P73, *Sphora nigricans Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 non Musca nigricans Villers 1789P73, M. oceanica Le Guillou 1842P73, M. vicaria Walker 1852P73, Graphomya vicariaP73, M. vicina Macquart 1851P73, M. domestica vicinaF92]

Musca (Plaxemya) conducens Walker 1860F92 [incl. M. kweilinensis Ôuchi 1938F92, Pristirynchomyia lucens Villeneuve 1922P73, M. lucensF92]

Musca (Plaxemya) ventrosa Wiedemann 1830F92 [incl. M. nigrithorax Stein 1909P73, M. xanthomelas Walker 1860 non Wiedemann 1824F92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[C07] Camerik, A. M. 2007. Ecological studies on phoretic females of dung-inhabiting Pediculaster (Acari: Heterostigmata, Pygmephoridae) species in South Africa: emigration patterns from cow and horse dung. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 649–655. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[C98] Coquebert, A. 1798. Sur une nouvelle espèce de mouche. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (19): 145.

[C10] Couri, M. S. 2010. Key to the Australasian and Oceanian genera of Muscidae (Diptera). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54 (4): 529–544.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[H72] Huckett, H. C. 1972. Notes on Bigot’s North American type-specimens at the University Museum, Oxford (Diptera: Anthomyiidae, Muscidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 81–85.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[P73] Pont, A. C. 1973. Studies on Australian Muscidae (Diptera). IV. A revision of the subfamilies Muscinae and Stomoxyinae. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 21: 129–296.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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