Muscicapidae

 Mocking cliff chat Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris, photographed by Derek Keats.

Belongs within: Muscicapida.
Contains: Cercotrichas, Muscicapa, Cyornis, Sheppardia, Phoenicurus, Monticola, Saxicola, OenantheMyophonus, Ficedula, Larvivora.

The Muscicapidae, Old World flycatchers and chats, are a diverse group of insectivorous birds found in Eurasia and Africa. Members of this family have commonly been divided between the more aerial Muscicapinae (Old World flycatchers) and more terrestrial Saxicolinae (chats), with the latter previously regarded as more closely related to the thrushes (Turdidae). However, recent phylogenetic studies do not resolve these two groups separately but have them intermingled (Jetz et al. 2012, Burleigh et al. 2015). Notable members of the group include the European robin Erithacus rubecula, a small, stout bird with brown upperparts and a bright orange face and breast. A number of other Eurasian chats previously classified within the genus Erithacus are now placed in segregate genera such as Luscinia and Larvivora owing to polyphyly of the genus in the broader sense. The whistling thrushes of the genus Myophonus are relatively large chats found in southern and eastern Asia, with the males (and sometimes females) being a glossy blue or purple in colour.

Characters (from The Internet Bird Collection): Very small to small birds with short bill wide at base and flattened dorsoventrally, wide gape and well-developed rictal bristles, small and rather weak legs and feet, short to medium-length tail; plumage often dull, predominantly grey or brown, males in some genera brightly coloured.

<==Muscicapidae [Muscicapinae, Saxicolinae]
    |--+--‘Ficedula’ nigrorufaJT12
    |  `--+--CercotrichasBKB15
    |     `--+--AletheJT12
    |        |    |--A. castaneaJF06
    |        |    `--A. diademataJT12
    |        `--+--Vauriella goodfellowiBKB15
    |           `--+--+--Namibornis hereroBKB15
    |              |  `--+--Humblotia flavirostrisJF06
    |              |     `--MuscicapaBKB15
    |              `--+--BradornisBKB15
    |                 |    |--B. infuscatusJT12
    |                 |    `--B. pallidusJT12 [=Melaenornis pallidusJF06]
    |                 `--+--+--Fraseria cinerascensBKB15
    |                    |  `--+--+--‘Muscicapa’ caerulescensBKB15
    |                    |     |  `--‘Muscicapa’ olivascensJT12
    |                    |     `--+--Fraseria ocreataBKB15
    |                    |        `--MyioparusBKB15
    |                    |             |--M. griseigularisJT12
    |                    |             `--M. plumbeusJT12
    |                    `--+--+--Empidornis semipartitusJT12
    |                       |  `--Sigelus silensJT12 [=Melaenornis silensJF06]
    |                       `--Melaenornis Gray 1840BKB15, B94 [Melaenornithinae]
    |                            |--M. annamarulaeJT12
    |                            |--M. ardesiacusJT12
    |                            |--M. edolioidesJT12
    |                            |--M. mariquensis [=Bradornis mariquensis]JF06
    |                            `--M. pammelainaJT12
    `--+--+--+--MyiomelaJT12
       |  |  |    |--M. albiventrisJT12 [=Brachypteryx albiventrisBKB15]
       |  |  |    `--M. majorJT12 [=Brachypteryx majorBKB15]
       |  |  `--+--Cyanoptila cyanomelanaBKB15
       |  |     |    |--C. c. cyanomelanaVP89
       |  |     |    `--C. c. cumatilisVP89
       |  |     `--EumyiasJT12
       |  |          |  i. s.: E. albicaudatusJT12
       |  |          |         E. sordidusJT12
       |  |          |--E. indigoJT12
       |  |          `--+--E. thalassinusJT12
       |  |             `--+--E. additusBKB15 [=Rhinomyias additusJT12]
       |  |                `--E. panayensisJT12
       |  `--+--+--‘Ficedula’ monilegerJT12
       |     |  `--CyornisJT12
       |     `--+--AnthipesBKB15
       |        |    |--A. leucops [incl. Digenea albifrons Sharpe 1888, A. albifrons, D. leucops Sharpe 1888]S89
       |        |    `--A. moniliger Wald. in Blyth 1875BKB15, S89 [=Digenea moniligerS89]
       |        `--Niltava Hodgson 1837JT12, M87
       |             |  i. s.: N. oatesiS89
       |             |         N. rueckiFP64
       |             |         N. sumatranaJT12
       |             |--+--N. macgrigoriaeBKB15
       |             |  `--N. vividaBKB15
       |             `--+--N. grandisBKB15
       |                `--+--N. davidiBKB15
       |                   `--N. sundaraJT12
       `--+--+--+--SheppardiaBKB15
          |  |  `--+--‘Cossypha’ anomalaBKB15
          |  |     `--+--‘Cossypha’ archeriJT12
          |  |        `--‘Cossypha’ caffraJT12
          |  `--+--+--‘Cossypha’ humeralisBKB15
          |     |  `--Erithacus Cuvier 1800BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
          |     |       |--E. brunneusG73
          |     |       |--E. cyaneVP89
          |     |       |--E. rubecula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla rubecula, E. rubeculus]CC10
          |     |       `--E. sibilansVP89
          |     `--+--+--+--+--Cossyphicula robertiBKB15
          |        |  |  |  `--Swynnertonia swynnertoniBKB15
          |        |  |  `--+--Oreocossypha isabellaeJF06 [=Cossypha isabellaeBKB15]
          |        |  |     `--Pogonocichla stellataBKB15
          |        |  `--+--CichladusaBKB15
          |        |     |    |--C. arquataJT12
          |        |     |    |--C. guttataJT12
          |        |     |    `--C. ruficaudaJT12
          |        |     `--StiphrornisBKB15
          |        |          |--S. erythrothoraxBKB15
          |        |          `--+--S. gabonensisBKB15
          |        |             `--+--S. sanghensisBKB15
          |        |                `--S. xanthogasterJF06
          |        `--+--PseudaletheBKB15
          |           |    |--+--P. choloensisJF06 [=Alethe choloensisJT12]
          |           |    |  `--P. fuelleborniJF06 [=Alethe fuelleborniJT12]
          |           |    `--+--P. poliocephalaJF06 [=Alethe poliocephalaJT12]
          |           |       `--P. poliophrysJF06 [=Alethe poliophrysJT12]
          |           `--Cossypha Vigors 1825JT12, B94
          |                |  i. s.: C. heinrichiJT12
          |                |         C. natalensisJT12
          |                |--C. cyanocampterJT12
          |                `--+--C. albicapillaJT12
          |                   `--+--+--C. dichroaBKB15
          |                      |  `--C. heugliniBKB15
          |                      `--+--C. niveicapillaBKB15
          |                         `--C. semirufa (Rüppell 1840)BKB15, S05 [=Petrocincla semirufaS05]
          `--+--+--+--‘Luscinia’ calliopeJT12
             |  |  `--‘Luscinia’ pectoralisJT12
             |  `--+--PhoenicurusBKB15
             |     `--+--MonticolaJT12
             |        `--+--SaxicolaJT12
             |           `--+--OenantheBKB15
             |              `--+--+--*Campicoloides bifasciatusB93 (see below for synonymy)
             |                 |  `--CercomelaBKB15
             |                 |       |--C. schlegeliiJT12
             |                 |       |    |--C. s. schlegeliiB93
             |                 |       |    `--C. s. pollux (Hartlaub 1865) [=Saxicola pollux]B93
             |                 |       `--+--C. sinuataJT12
             |                 |          `--C. tractracJT12
             |                 `--+--+--‘Myrmecocichla’ cinnamomeiventrisJT12
             |                    |  `--‘Cercomela’ sordidaBKB15
             |                    `--+--ThamnolaeaBKB15
             |                       |    |--T. cinnamomeiventrisJF06
             |                       |    |    |--T. c. cinnamomeiventrisS05
             |                       |    |    `--T. c. albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) (see below for synonymy)S05
             |                       |    `--T. leucocephalusVP89
             |                       `--MyrmecocichlaBKB15
             |                            |  i. s.: M. formicivoraJT12
             |                            |         M. tholloniJT12
             |                            |--+--M. aethiopsJT12
             |                            |  `--‘Oenanthe’ monticola Vieillot 1818JT12, ICZN96 (see below for synonymy)
             |                            `--+--M. nigraJT12 [incl. M. stoehri Sclater ex Brooke 1993 (n. n.)B93]
             |                               `--+--M. arnottiBKB15
             |                                  `--M. melaenaJT12
             `--+--+--+--Vauriella insignisBKB15
                |  |  `--CalliopeBKB15
                |  |       |--C. calliope (Pall. 1776) (see below for synonymy)M01
                |  |       `--C. pectoralisBKB15 [=Erithacus pectoralisG73]
                |  `--+--‘Cinclidium’ frontaleBKB15
                |     `--MyophonusJT12
                `--+--Enicurus Temminck 1822BKB15, B94 [=Henicurus (l. c.)B94; Enicurinae, Henicurinae]
                   |    |  i. s.: E. immaculatusJT12
                   |    |         E. sinensis Gould 1865 (see below for synonymy)S89
                   |    |         E. velatusJT12
                   |    |--+--E. schistaceusJT12
                   |    |  `--E. scouleriJT12
                   |    `--+--E. ruficapillusJT12
                   |       `--+--E. leschenaultiJT12
                   |          `--E. maculatusJT12
                   `--+--+--FicedulaBKB15
                      |  `--+--+--‘Rhinomyias’ insignisJT12
                      |     |  `--Heinrichia calligynaJT12
                      |     `--CinclidiumBKB15
                      |          |--C. dianaJT12
                      |          `--C. leucurumJT12
                      `--+--TarsigerBKB15
                         |    |--+--T. cyanurusJT12 [=Erithacus cyanurusT89, Ianthia cyanuraG73]
                         |    |  `--T. hyperythrusJT12
                         |    `--+--T. indicusJT12
                         |       `--+--T. chrysaeusJT12
                         |          `--T. johnstoniaeJT12
                         `--+--LarvivoraBKB15
                            `--Brachypteryx Horsfield 1822BKB15, B94 [Brachypteryginae]
                                 |--B. hyperythraJT12
                                 |--B. leucophrysJT12
                                 |--B. montanaJT12
                                 `--B. stellataJT12
Muscicapidae incertae sedis:
  Xenocopsychus ansorgeiJT12
  Pinarornis plumosusJT12
  DioptrornisJT12
    |--D. brunneusJT12
    |--D. chocolatinusJT12
    `--D. fischeriJT12
  Oedon luscinia (Linnaeus 1758)CC10 (see below for synonymy)
  RhinomyiasJT12
    |--R. albigularisJT12
    |--R. brunneatusJT12
    |--R. colonusJT12
    |--R. goodfellowiJF06
    |--R. gularisJT12
    `--R. oscillansJT12

Calliope calliope (Pall. 1776) [=Motacilla calliope, Erithacus calliope; incl. Calliope camtschatkensis Strickl. 1841]M01

*Campicoloides bifasciatusB93 [=Saxicola bifasciatusBKB15, Oenanthe bifasciataB93; incl. S. spectabilis Hartlaub 1865B93]

Enicurus sinensis Gould 1865 [=E. chinensis, Henicurus chinensis, H. sinensis; incl. H. speciosus Swinh. 1861 (preoc.)]S89

Erithacus Cuvier 1800BKB15, M02 [incl. Aedon Forster 1814B94, Cyanecula Brehm 1828B94, Philomela Swainson 1831 non Link 1806B94; Aedoninae, Cyaneculinae, Erithacinae, Philomelinae]

Oedon luscinia (Linnaeus 1758)CC10 [=Motacilla lusciniaCC10, Daulias lusciniaCC10, Philomela lusciniaG42, Sylvia lusciniaF17; incl. Luscinia aedonF17]

‘Oenanthe’ monticola Vieillot 1818JT12, ICZN96 [incl. Saxicola castor Hartlaub 1865B93, Motacilla montana Wilkes 1817 (nom. rej.)ICZN96]

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) [=Saxicola albiscapulata; incl. S. humeralis ms, S. rufiventris ms]S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F17] Forster, T. 1817. A synoptical catalogue of British birds; intended to identify the species mentioned by different names in several catalogues already extant. Forming a book of reference to observations on British ornithology. Nichols, Son, and Bentley: London.

[G73] Gauntlett, F. M. 1973. Notes on some Kashmir birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 591–615.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Observations on the semen and seminal tubes of Mammalia and birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 95–102.

[ICZN96] ICZN. 1996. Nine specific names of southern Afrotropical birds conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 53: 292–294.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M87] Mayr, E. 1987. The status of subjective junior homonyms. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 85–86.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

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