Mustelinae

Neotropical otters Lontra longicaudis, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Mustelidae.
Contains: Martes, Galictis, Mustela, Lutra.

Variations on a tayra
Published 11 April 2020

Subspecies can be a funny thing in the world of animal taxonomy. Millions of litres of ink have been spilt over the years arguing over how one defines a species but a lot less has been invested in discussing the nature of subspecies. For some popular species concepts (such as the most popular iteration of the ‘phylogenetic species concept’), one might question whether any concept of subspecies could be applied at all (I could suggest some hypothetical situations but just how applicable or practical they are is a further matter). Essentially, most subspecies concepts distill down to ‘a population that is distinct enough to warrant recognition but somehow doesn’t quite qualify as a species’. Historically, the rank has tended not to receive a lot of usage among animals outside groups subject to particularly high levels of taxonomic attention—most particularly, vertebrates and butterflies—and many currently recognised animal subspecies were first named in days when taxon descriptions tended to be much briefer and taxonomists were under less pressure to explain their reasoning. Because subspecies tend to be, by their nature, vague and difficult to define, and because evaluating them often requires detailed population analysis within a species, these historical subspecies have a tendency to linger, unchallenged, in taxonomic listings. And with that as background, tayras.

Tayra Eira barbara photographed in Peru, copyright eMammal. Photography location would indicate this individual to be either E. b. madeirensis or E. b. peruana.

The tayra Eira barbara is a large mustelid (a member of the family including weasels, otters and badgers) found in warmer regions of Central and South America, its distribution extending down to about the level of the southern edge of Brazil. They are long-bodied but robust animals, kind of looking like a ‘roided-up stoat. They grow to a head-body length of two feet or more (up to about 71 centimetres) with a tail about two-thirds as long again. Adult males tend to be a third as large again as females and more muscular around the fore quarters. Comparisons have often been made between tayras and the martens Martes of the Northern Hemisphere and molecular studies confirm a relationship between these two genera, as well as the wolverines Gulo. Closer fossil relatives are known from North America and it seems likely that the tayra originated on that continent then spread southwards. Ruiz-García et al. (2013) suggested that the degree of genetic divergence between tayras found in South America might indicate the species may have arrived there about eight million years ago, before the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Tayras are not the only species for which this possibility has been suggested; these early arrivals may have reached South America by island-hopping between earlier-emerging segments of the eventual connection.

Tayras are diurnal omnivores, their known diet ranging from fruits to small animals to honey. In captivity, it seems they will accept pretty much anything offered to them. Tayras are the only animals other than humans that have been recorded caching unripe fruit in order to eat it after it finishes ripening. It is still not certain to what degree tayras are solitary or social; though commonly regarded as solitary, they have been recorded hunting howler monkeys in groups (Shostell & Ruiz-Garcia 2013). Tayras are mostly found in forests; in some areas they may adjust to more open habitats but seemingly only under sufferance (Presley 2000). Though not regarded as ‘arboreal’ per se, tayras are adept climbers. Their well developed carpal vibrissae (‘whiskers’ on the wrists) presumably contribute to this ability. Their wide distribution and adaptability mean that tayras are not currently regarded as of conservation concern though habitat degradation has reduced their numbers in some areas.

Tayra from Belize, presumably the light-headed Eira barbara senex, from Wikimedia Commons.

The body and tail of tayras are generally dark brown or black with the head being distinctly lighter in coloration (light brown or grey to yellow). Leucistic and albino individuals are not that uncommon (yellow tayras are apparently particularly common in Guyana). A patch of pale coloration, varying from a spot to a broad triangle, is often (but not always) present on the chest and throat. Recent taxonomic listings (e.g. Presley 2000) have recognised seven subspecies of tayra distinguished by coloration. The Mexican Eira barbara senex has a greyish white head with the light coloration extending to dark yellow shoulders and a dark brown body. Eira barbara inserta, found in southern Honduras and Nicaragua, is a dark subspecies with a dark brown head, black body and no throat patch. The Colombian E. b. sinuensis is darker than E. b. senex with the nape a darker brown than the head; it may or may not possess a throat patch. Eira barbara barbara, found in southern Brazil, eastern Bolivia and Paraguay, is lighter than E. b. sinuensis but darker than E. b. senex and has a yellowish throat patch. The northern Brazilian E. b. madeirensis is a chocolate brown with the head slightly lighter than the body; again, a throat patch may or may not be present. The Peruvian and western Bolivian E. b. peruana is similar to the last subspecies but has darker legs and a black tail. Finally, E. b. poliocephala, which has a distribution centred on the Guianas, is similar to E. b. barbara but with a darker yellow throat patch and yellow shoulder patches that sometimes merge with the throat patch to form a complete collar.

Tayra photographed in a zoo in Panama, copyright Dirk van der Made. Being a zoo individual, its origins are a bit more open than the other individuals shown on this page, but Panama is home to Eira barbara inserta and E. b. sinuensis.

Such is the received wisdom as recorded by Presley (2000) but does it accurately reflect population distributions? Ruiz-García et al. (2013) conducted an analysis of mitochondrial genes from tayras representing the five South American subspecies (i.e. excluding E. b. senex and E. b. inserta). They found that of these five subspecies, only E. b. poliocephala (as represented by specimens from French Guiana) could potentially be differentiated genetically. Samples from the ranges of the other four ‘subspecies’ were intermingled in analyses, leading Ruiz-García et al. to suggest that they should be merged into a single subspecies E. b. barbara (it may also be worth me mentioning that, when I was looking for images to illustrate this post, I had difficulty finding ones in which the supposed differences between subspecies were recognisable). Of course, that leaves the status of the two Central American subspecies undetermined. It may be of note that they seem to be more distinct in appearance than some of the hitherto-recognised South American subspecies but it remains to be seen just how significant this is.

Systematics of Mustelinae
<==MustelinaeP84
| i. s.: Poecilictis libycaK84b
|--+--MartesFS15
| `--Eira Hamilton Smith 1942FS15, C57 [incl. Galera Gray 1865C57, Tayra Allen 1902C57; Tayrinae]
| `--E. barbara (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)C57
| |--E. b. barbara (see below for synonymy)C57
| |--E. b. madeirensis (Lönnberg 1913) [=Tayra barbara madeirensis]C57
| |--E. b. peruana (Nehring 1886) (see below for synonymy)C57
| |--E. b. poliocephala (Traill 1821) (see below for synonymy)C57
| |--E. b. senex (Thomas 1900)G69, T00 [=Galictis barbara senexT00]
| |--E. b. sinuensis (Humboldt 1812) (see below for synonymy)C57
| `--‘Galictis’ b. trinitatis Thomas 1900T00
`--+--MelogaleFS15
| |--M. everettiFS15
| |--M. moschataFS15
| |--M. orientalisFS15
| `--M. personataFS15
`--+--+--+--+--GalictisFS15
| | | `--TrigonictisBH13
| | `--Lyncodon Gervais in D’Orbigny 1845FS15, C57
| | `--*L. patagonicus (Blainville 1842) [=Mustela patagonica]C57
| | |--L. p. patagonicus (see below for synonymy)C57
| | `--L. p. thomasi Cabrera 1928C57
| `--+--Vormela peregusna Güldenstaedt 1770FS15, OS00
| | |--V. p. peregusnaOS00
| | |--V. p. alpherakyiOS00
| | `--V. p. syriacus Pocock 1936OS00
| `--IctonyxFS15
| | i. s.: I. kalaharicusS78
| | I. orangiaeS78
| |--I. libycaFS15
| `--+--I. striatusFS15
| `--Poecilogale albinuchaFS15
`--+--+--MustelaFS15
| `--KinometaxiaRDT09
`--+--Paragale huerzeleriRDT09, T76
`--LutrinaeFF06
| i. s.: Hydrictis maculicollisK84a
| EnhydriodonS78
| |--E. africanusS78
| `--E. pattersoniS78
| ParaonyxS78
| |--P. congicaS78
| |--P. microdonS78
| `--P. philippsiS78
| Algarolutra Malatesta & Willemsen 1986AC98
| `--*A. majori (Malatesta 1978)AC98
| Cyrnaonix Helbing 1935AC98
| Megalenhydris Willemsen & Malatesta 1987AC98
| `--*M. barbaricina Willemsen & Malatesta 1987AC98
| Sardolutra Willemsen 1992AC98
| `--*S. ichnusae (Malatesta 1977) [=Nesolutra ichnusae]AC98
|--Pteronura Gray 1837FS15, C57 [=Pteroneura (l. c.)C57, Pterura Wiegmann 1839C57]
| `--P. brasiliensis (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy)C57
| |--P. b. brasiliensis (see below for synonymy)C57
| `--P. b. paranensis (Rengger 1830) (see below for synonymy)C57
`--+--Lontra Gray 1843FS15, C57
| |--L. canadensis (Schreber 1776)FS15, B75 [=Mustela lutra canadensisB75, Lutra canadensisB75]
| | |--L. c. canadensisB75
| | `--‘Lutra’ c. interiorB75
| `--+--L. longicaudisFS15 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--L. l. longicaudisMB86
| | |--‘Lutra’ l. annectens Major 1897MB86
| | |--‘Lutra annectens’ colombiana Allen 1904 (see below for synonymy)C57
| | |--‘Lutra’ l. enudris Cuvier 1823D84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--‘Lutra annectens’ parilina Thomas 1914C57
| | `--‘Lutra’ l. platensis Waterhouse 1838D84, C57 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--L. felina (Molina 1782)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
| `--L. provocax Thomas 1908FS15, C57 [=Lutra provocaxC57]
`--+--EnhydraFS15
| |--E. lutris (Linnaeus 1758)I92 [=Mustela lutrisC57]
| | |--E. l. lutris [incl. Lutra gracilis Bechstein 1800]C57
| | `--E. l. nereisBP87
| `--E. macrodontaBDR85
`--+--‘Lutra’ maculicollisFS15
`--+--LutraFS15
`--AonyxFS15
|--+--A. capensisFS15
| `--A. congicusFS15
`--+--A. cinereaFS15
`--Lutrogale Gray 1865FS15, AC98 [incl. Isolalutra Symeonides & Sondaar 1975AC98]
|--L. cretensis (Symeonides & Sondaar 1975)AC98
`--L. perspicillataD84

Eira barbara (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mustela barbara, Galera barbara, Galera barbata, Galictis barbara, Gulo barbarus, Gulo barbatus, Tayra barbara]C57

Eira barbara barbara (Linné 1758) [incl. Gulo canescens Lichtenstein 1825, Mustela gulina Schinz 1821, Tayra barbara gulina, T. barbara kriegi Krumbiegal 1942, T. barbara tucumana Lönnberg 1913]C57

Eira barbara peruana (Nehring 1886) [=Galictis barbara var. peruana, Tayra barbara peruana; incl. Galera barbara brunnea Thomas 1907]C57

Eira barbara poliocephala (Traill 1821) [=Viverra poliocephalus, Tayra barbara poliocephala; incl. *E. ilya Hamilton Smith 1842, Gulo leira Cuvier 1849]C57

Eira barbara sinuensis (Humboldt 1812) [=Mustela sinuensis, Tayra barbara sinuensis; incl. Galera barbara var. bimaculata Martínez 1873, T. barbara bimaculata, Galictis barbara biologiae Thomas 1900, T. barbara biologiae, T. barbara irara Allen 1904, T. barbara senilis Allen 1913]C57

Lontra felina (Molina 1782)FS15, C57 [=Mustela felinaC57, Lutra felinaC57, Nutria felinaC57; incl. Lutra brachydactyla Wagner 1841C57, Lutra californica Gray 1837C57, Mustela (Lutra) chilensis Kerr 1792C57, Lutra peruviensis Gervais 1841C57]

Lontra longicaudisFS15 [=Lutra longicaudisMB86; incl. Lutra incarum Thomas 1908D84, C57, Lutra insularis Cuvier 1823D84, C57, Lutra latidensD84, Lutra montana Tschudi 1844C57]

‘Lutra annectens’ colombiana Allen 1904 [incl. L. emerita Thomas 1908, L. annectens repanda Pohle 1920]C57

‘Lutra’ longicaudis enudris Cuvier 1823D84, C57 [=L. enhydrisC57, L. enydrisC57; incl. L. mitis Thomas 1908C57]

Lutra’ longicaudis platensis Waterhouse 1838D84, C57 [incl. L. latifrons Nehring 1887C57, L. solitaria Wagner 1842C57]

Lyncodon patagonicus patagonicus (Blainville 1842) [incl. Mustela anticola Burmeister 1869 (n. n.), L. lujanensis Ameghino 1889]C57

Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin 1788) [=Mustela lutris brasiliensis, Lontra brasiliensis, Lutra brasiliana, Lutra brasiliensis, Pteroneura braziliensis]C57

Pteronura brasiliensis brasiliensis (Gmelin 1788) [incl. Lutra lupina Schinz 1821, Pteronura brasiliensis lupina, *Pteronura sambachii Gray 1837, Pteronura sandbachii, Pterura sanbachii]C57

Pteronura brasiliensis paranensis (Rengger 1830) [=Lutra (Pteronura) paranensis; incl. L. paraguensis Schinz 1821 non Kerr 1792]C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[BDR85] Barnes, L. G., D. P. Domning & C. E. Ray. 1985. Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1 (1): 15–53.

[BH13] Bornholdt, R., K. Helgen, K.-P. Koepfli, L. Oliveira, M. Lucherini & E. Eizirik. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the genus Galictis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): species delimitation, morphological diagnosis, and refined mapping of geographical distribution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 167: 449–472.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[D84] Duplaix, N. 1984. Otters. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 116–121. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[FF06] Finarelli, J. A. & J. J. Flynn. 2006. Ancestral state reconstruction of body size in the Caniformia (Carnivora, Mammalia): the effects of incorporating data from the fossil record. Systematic Biology 55 (2): 301–313.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K84a] King, C. M. 1984a. The weasel family. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 100–101. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[K84b] King, C. M. 1984b. Weasels and polecats. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 102–107. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1-88.

[OS00] Özkurt, Ş., M. Sözen, N. Yiğit, E. Çolak & R. Verimli. 2000. On colouration and karyology of the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, in Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 13–18.

[P84] Powell, R. A. 1984. Martens. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 110–111. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

Presley, S. J. 2000. Eira barbara. Mammalian Species 636: 1–6.

Ruiz-García, M., N. Lichilín-Ortiz & M. F. Jaramillo. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of two Neotropical carnivores, Potos flavus (Procyonidae) and Eira barbata (Mustelidae): no clear existence of putative morphological subspecies. In: Ruiz-Garcia, M., & J. M. Shostell (eds) Molecular Population Genetics, Evolutionary Biology and Biological Conservation of Neotropical Carnivores pp. 37–84. Nova Publishers: New York.

[RDT09] Rybczynski, N., M. R. Dawson & R. H. Tedford. 2009. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia. Nature 458: 1021–1024.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 249–267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Shostell, J. M., & M. Ruiz-Garcia. 2013. An introduction to Neotropical carnivores. In: Ruiz-Garcia, M., & J. M. Shostell (eds) Molecular Population Genetics, Evolutionary Biology and Biological Conservation of Neotropical Carnivores pp. 1–34. Nova Publishers: New York.

[T76] Tedford, R. H. 1976. Relationship of pinnipeds to other carnivores (Mammalia). Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 363–374.

[T00] Thomas, O. 1900. The geographical races of the tayra (Galictis barbara), with notes on abnormally coloured individuals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 145–148.

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