Mygalomorphae

Male Calommata simoni, from Fourie et al. (2011). Scale bar = 5 mm.

Belongs within: Araneida.
Contains: Avicularoidea.

The Mygalomorphae are one of the main clades of spiders, characterised by chelicerae with fangs closing down the longitudinal axis of the body. Members of the families Atypidae and Antrodiaetidae have the cephalic part of the cephalothorax raised and the eyes on a common tubercle whereas in other mygalomorphs the eyes are sessile (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Labium and endites with cuspules; sternum with sigilla; anterior median spinnerets absent; anterior lateral spinnerets reduced; posterior lateral spinnerets with three or four segments; number of male palpal sclerites reduced.

<==Mygalomorphae [Avicularidae, Fornicephalae, Pachyloscelinae, Terretelariae, Trionychae]
    |--+--AvicularoideaJD-S07
    |  `--Mecicobothriidae [Hexurinae]JD-S07
    |       |--Megahexura Kaston 1972JD-S07
    |       |--Hexura Simon 1884JD-S07
    |       |--Hexurella Gertsch & Platnick 1979JD-S07
    |       |--Cretohexura coylei Eskov & Zonshtein 1990S93
    |       |--Cretomegahexura Eskov & Zonshtein 1990S93
    |       |--BrachybothriumS89
    |       `--Mecicobothrium Holmberg 1882JD-S07
    |            `--M. thorelliJD-S07
    `--Atypoidea [Atypoidina]JD-S07
         |--AntrodiaetidaeJD-S07
         |    |--Aliatypus Smith 1908JD-S07
         |    |--Cretacattyma raveni Eskov & Zonshtein 1990S93
         |    |--Atypoides P.-Cambridge 1883JD-S07
         |    |    `--A. riversiP72
         |    `--Antrodiaetus Ausserer 1871JD-S07
         |         |--A. pacificusJD-S07
         |         `--A. robustusR14
         `--Atypidae [Atypinae]JD-S07
              |--Ambiortiphagus ponomarenkoi Eskov & Zonshtein 1990S93
              |--CamptotarsusS89
              |--Sphodros Walckenaer 1835JD-S07
              |    `--S. rufipesSC20
              |--Calommata Lucas 1837JD-S07
              |    `--C. simoniJD-S07
              `--Atypus Latreille 1804JD-S07 [incl. Madognatha Auss. 1871S89]
                   |--*A. sultzeri Latreille 1804C01 [=Mygale (Atypus) sulzeriG20]
                   |--A. abboti [=Sphodros abboti, *Madognatha abboti]S89
                   |--A. affinis Eichwald 1830S02
                   |--A. bicolorA99
                   |--A. limbatus Risso 1826R26
                   `--A. subterraneus [=Aranea subterranea]C01
Mygalomorphae incertae sedis:
  Megarachne servinei Hünicken 1980S02
  Eodiplurina cockerelli Petrunkevitch 1922S02
  Pelecodon Doleschall 1859D59
    `--*P. sundaicus Doleschall 1859D59
  Hemirrhagus reddelli (Gertsch 1973)G11
  FossilcalcaridaeW19
  Pachyloscelis Lucas 1833S89
    |--P. caraiba Simon 1889S89
    |--P. rojasi Simon 1889S89
    |--P. scalops Simon 1889S89
    `--P. valenciana Simon 1889S89
  ClosterochilusS89
  TheragretesS89

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[G11] Giribet, G. 2011. Shearogovea, a new genus of Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, Opiliones) of uncertain position of Oaxacan caves, Mexico. Breviora 528: 1–7.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[P72] Powell, J. A. 1972. Additional prey records for the forest-dwelling spider wasp, Priocnemis oregona (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (4): 277–278.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SC20] Scharff, N., J. A. Coddington, T. A. Blackledge, I. Agnarsson, V. W. Framenau, T. Szűts, C. Y. Hayashi & D. Dimitrov. 2020. Phylogeny of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Araneae: Araneoidea). Cladistics 36: 1–21.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. First British Mesozoic spider, from Cretaceous amber of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Palaeontology 45 (5): 973–983.

[S89] Simon, E. 1889. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). 4e mémoire. Arachnides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 169–220, pls 1–3.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

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