Myliobatiformes

Pacific cownose rays Rhinoptera steindachneri, copyright Steve Ryan.

Belongs within: Chondrichthyes.
Contains: Myliobatidae, Urolophus, Himantura, Dasyatis, Potamotrygonidae.

The Myliobatiformes are a group of rays with large pectoral fins combining with the head to form a broad disc, a slender tail often bearing strong stinging spines, and caudal and dorsal fins reduced or absent (Bond 1996). The final disc is rhomboidal in shape in the more pelagic Mobulidae and Myliobatoidea but rounder in the more benthic Dasyatoidea.

<==Myliobatiformes
| i. s.: Urobatis [Urotrygonidae]LC99a
| `--U. halleriY56
| HexatrygonHMM12 [HexatrygonidaeB96]
| `--H. bickelli Heemstra & Smith 1980 (see below for synonymy)CL99b
| Plesiobatis [Plesiobatidae]CL99a
| `--P. daviesi (Wallace 1967) (see below for synonymy)CL99a
| Hypanus guttatusVF21
|--Mobulidae [Mobuloidea]CDZ93
| |--Archaeomanta priemi Herman 1979CDZ93
| |--BurnhamiaCDZ93
| |--MantaM02c
| | |--M. alfrediG75
| | |--M. birostris (Walbaum 1792)M02c [=Raja birostrisM58; incl. M. banksiana Whitley 1936M58]
| | `--M. hamiltoniMH96
| `--MobulaCL99e
| |--M. alfrediVF21
| |--M. birostrisVF21
| |--M. eregoodoo (Cantor 1849)CL99e
| |--M. eregoodootenkee (Bleeker 1852)CL99e
| |--M. japanica (Müler & Henle 1841)CL99e
| |--M. kuhlii (Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1841)CL99e
| |--M. mobular (Bonnaterre 1788) [incl. M. diabolus (Shaw 1804)]CL99e
| |--M. tarapacana (Philippi 1892)CL99e
| `--M. thurstoni (Lloyd 1908)CL99e
|--MyliobatoideaCDZ93
| |--MyliobatidaeM58
| |--RhombodontidaeCDZ93
| | |--Pucabatis Cappetta 1975GM01
| | | `--P. hoffstetteri Cappetta 1975GM01
| | `--RhombodusCDZ93
| | |--R. binkhorsti Dames 1881CDZ93
| | |--R. bondoni Arambourg 1952CDZ93
| | |--R. levis Cappetta & Case 1975CDZ93
| | |--R. meridionalis Arambourg 1952CDZ93
| | `--R. microdon Arambourg 1952CDZ93
| `--Rhinoptera [Rhinopteridae]CDZ93
| |--R. adspersa Valenciennes in Müller & Henle 1841CL99d
| |--R. bonasus (Mitchill 1815)M02b
| |--R. brasiliensisVF21
| |--R. javanica Müller & Henle 1841CL99d
| |--R. marginataCW01
| |--R. neglecta Ogilby 1912CL99d
| |--R. prisca Woodward 1907CDZ93
| |--R. raeburni White 1934CDZ93
| |--R. sewelliNM72
| `--R. steindachneriCW01
`--DasyatoideaCDZ93
|--UrolophidaeCDZ93
| |--Trygonoptera testacea Banks in Müller & Henle 1841LC99a
| `--UrolophusM58
|--DasyatidaeM58
| |--Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) [incl. U. africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)]LC99b
| |--MyledaphusG88
| |--HimanturaM58
| |--DasyatisM02a
| |--Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål 1775) [incl. Dasyatis gruveli Chabanaud 1923]LC99b
| |--TaeniuraM58
| | |--T. lymma (Forskål 1775) (see below for synonymy)M58
| | `--T. meyeni Müller & Henle 1841 [incl. T. melanospilos Bleeker 1853]LC99b
| |--Amphotistius kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841) [=Trygon kuhlii, Dasyatis kuhlii]M58
| |--Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle 1841)MM14
| `--TrygonB80
| |--T. dezignoi Molin 1861 [=Anacanthus zignii]B80
| |--T. muricata (Volta 1796) (see below for synonymy)B80
| |--T. pastinaceaH72 [=Dasyatis pastinacaY56]
| `--T. walga [=Dasyatis walga]Y56
|--GymnuridaeCDZ93
| |--Aetoplatea zonura Bleeker 1852CL99c
| `--GymnuraH72
| |--G. altavelaVF21
| |--G. australis (Ramsay & Ogilby 1885)CL99c
| |--G. japonica (Schlegal 1850)CL99c
| |--G. javanicaH72
| |--G. laterialata Werner 1989CDZ93
| |--G. micrura (Bloch & Schneider 1801)CL99c
| |--G. natalensisH72
| `--G. poecilura (Shaw 1804)CL99c
`--PotamotrygonidaeCDZ93

Hexatrygon bickelli Heemstra & Smith 1980 [incl. Hexatrygon brevirostra Shen 1986, Hexatrematobatis longirostrum Chu & Meng in Chu, Meng et al. 1981, Hexatrygon taiwanensis Shen 1986, Hexatrygon yangi Shen & Liu 1984]CL99b

Plesiobatis daviesi (Wallace 1967) [=Urotrygon daviesi; incl. U. marmoratus Chu, Hu & Li in Chu, Meng et al. 1981]CL99a

Taeniura lymma (Forskål 1775) [=Raja lymma; incl. Trygon halgani Lesson 1830, Taeniura lymma halgani, Discobatis marginipinnis Miklouho-Maclay & Macleay 1886]M58

Trygon muricata (Volta 1796) [=T. muricatus; incl. T. gazolae Agassiz 1843, Alexandrinum molinii de Zigno 1874]B80

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B80] Blot, J. 1980. La faune ichthyologique des gisements du Monte Bolca (Province de Vérone, Italie). Catalogue systématique présentant l’état actuel des recherches concernant cette faune. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle C 2: 339–396.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CW01] Chisholm, L. E., & I. D. Whittington. 2001. Euzetia occultum n. g., n. sp. (Euzetiinae n. subf.), a monocotylid monogenean from the gills of Rhinoptera neglecta (Rhinopteridae) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Systematic Parasitology 48: 179–183.

[CL99a] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999a. Plesiobatidae. Giant stingaree. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1467–1468. FAO: Rome.

[CL99b] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999b. Hexatrygonidae. Sixgill stingray. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1477–1478. FAO: Rome.

[CL99c] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999c. Gymnuridae. Butterfly rays. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1506–1510. FAO: Rome.

[CL99d] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999d. Rhinopteridae. Cownose rays. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1520–1523. FAO: Rome.

[CL99e] Compagno, L. J. V., & P. R. Last. 1999e. Mobulidae. Devil rays. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1524–1529. FAO: Rome.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39–68.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H72] Hulley, P. A. 1972. The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Annals of the South African Museum 60 (1): 1–103.

[HMM12] Human, B. A., S. M. Morrison & I. D. MacLeod. 2012. Is the megamouth shark susceptible to mega-distortion? Investigating the effects of twenty-two years of fixation and preservation on a large specimen of Megachasma pelagios (Chondrichthyes: Megachasmidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 7–20.

[LC99a] Last, P. R., & L. J. V. Compagno. 1999a. Urolophidae. Stingarees. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1469–1476. FAO: Rome.

[LC99b] Last, P. R., & L. J. V. Compagno. 1999b. Dasyatidae. Stingrays. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1479–1505. FAO: Rome.

[M02a] McEachran, J. D. 2002a. Whip-tail stingrays. Family Dasyatidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 75–78. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M02b] McEachran, J. D. 2002b. Cownose rays. Family Rhinopteridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 78–80. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[M02c] McEachran, J. D. 2002c. Mantas and devil rays. Family Mobulidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 80–81. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[MM14] Moore, G. I., S. M. Morrison, J. B. Hutchins, G. R. Allen & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: fishes. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 161–206.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin 1).

[NM72] Nair, R. V., & S. L. Mohan. 1972. The deep sea spined dog fish Centrophorus armatus (Gilchrist) (Selachii: Sualidae) from the east coast of India, with a note on its taxonomy. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 193–199.

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

[Y56] Young, R. T. 1956. A review of the cestode genus Echeneibothrium. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (8): 256–265.

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