Notocorbula ephamilla, copyright Piet Hessel.

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.
Contains: Mya, Corbula, Neaera.

The Myoidea, soft-shell clams, are a group of infaunal bivalves first recorded from the Upper Jurassic. Within the group, the Myidae have the shells elongate and chalky with a wide posterior gape. The Pacific Spheniopsidae have more or less equivalve shells like Myidae but stronger sculpture of commarginate ridges (Beesley et al. 1998). Corbulidae have sturdier shells with inequilateral valves and usually with a resilifer in one valve. Some Corbulidae species on the western coast of North America inhabit brackish environments and the Middle Palaeocene Bicorbula mactriformis appears to have been entirely freshwater (Gray 1988).

|--PotamomyaSB93 [ErodonidaeBRW98]
| |--P. nimbosaH43
| |--P. ocreata Hinds 1843H43
| `--P. plana (Sowerby 1814)SB93
|--SpheniopsisSB93 [SpheniopsidaeBRW98]
| `--S. scalaris (Braun 1851)SB93
|--Myidae [Myacidae]GW02
| |--Platyodon cancellatus [=Mya cancellata; incl. Cryptodonta myoides Nuttall ms]C64
| |--ParamyaBRW98
| |--TugoniaBRW98
| | |--T. anatinaPP64
| | |--T. huanghaiensis Xu 1987XZ10
| | `--T. (Distugonia) inopinataBRW98
| |--CryptomyaJB12
| | |--C. californica [=Sphaenia californica]C64
| | |--C. (Venatomya) elliptica (Adams 1851)BRW98, H09 [=Sphaenia ellipticaH09]
| | |--C. ovalis Conrad 1856C64
| | `--C. truncataJB12
| |--SpheniaBD86
| | |--S. bilirataC64
| | |--S. binghamiN79
| | |--S. fragilis (Adams & Adams 1854)PP78
| | |--S. leptomorpha Cossmann 1891SB93
| | |--S. luticola [=Corbula luticola]C64
| | |--S. ovalisC64
| | |--S. ovoidea Carpenter 1864C64
| | |--S. perversa Lynge 1909TW07
| | `--S. rueppelli Adams 1850 [incl. Cuspidaria adenensis Jousseaume 1888]BD86
| `--MyaL58
`--Corbulidae [Aloididae]GW02
|--Bicorbula mactriformisG88
|--Lentidium mediterraneumJB12, PP64 [=Corbula mediterraneaPP64]
|--Aloidis iredaleiM54
|--Anisorhynchus Meek in Hayden 1871B65b [=Anisorhyncus Conrad 1874B65b, Ursirivus Vokes 1945G88, B65b]
| `--*A. cuneiformis [=Pachydon cuneiformis]B65b
|--Caryocorbula Gardner 1926DK08
| `--C. pixidata (Tate 1887) [=Corbula pixidata]DK08
|--Bothrocorbula Gabb 1873B65a
| `--‘Corbula (Caryocorbula)’ contractaB65a
| |--P. amurensis (Schrenck 1867)XZ10
| |--P. laevis (Hinds 1843)XZ10
| `--P. ustulata (Reeve 1865)XZ10
| |--V. disparilis (Orbigny in Sagra 1853)GW02, B65a [=Corbula disparilisB65a]
| |--V. gibba (Olivi 1792)BRW98, F26 (see below for synonymy)
| |--V. limatula (Conrad 1846) [=Corbula limatula]B65a
| |--V. operculata (Philippi 1848) [=Corbula operculata]B65a
| `--V. speciosa (Reeve 1843) [=Corbula (Varicorbula) speciosa]PP78
`--Notocorbula Iredale 1930P61
| i. s.: N. coxiBRW98
| N. ephamillaBRW98
| N. fortisulcata (Smith 1878)MG-H11
| N. hydropica Iredale 1930MG-H11
| N. operculata (Philippi 1848)C94
| N. pumilaB70
| N. smithiana (Brazier 1879)MG-H11
| N. stolata (Iredale 1930)MG-H11
|--*N. (Notocorbula) vicariaP61 [incl. Corbula tunicata Hinds 1843BRW98, H09]
`--N. (Anisocorbula Iredale 1930)P61
|--N. (*A.) macgillivrayi (Smith 1885)P61, MG-H11 [=Corbula macgillivrayiP61]
`--N. (A.) zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1835)P61 [=Corbula zelandicaHS01]

Varicorbula gibba (Olivi 1792)BRW98, F26 [=Tellina gibbaJ64, Aloidis gibbaBRW98, Corbula gibbaF26; incl. Notocorbula haastiana (Hutton 1878)P61, C. nucleusJ64, C. gibba var. roseaN79]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B65b] Baker, H. B. 1965b. Anisorhynchus vs. Ursirivus. Nautilus 78 (3): 105.

[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[B70] Beu, A. G. 1970. Bathyal Upper Miocene Mollusca from Wairarapa district, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Earth Sciences 7 (12): 209–240.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C94] Cedhagen, T. 1994. Taxonomy and biology of Hyrrokkin sarcophaga gen. et sp. n., a parasitic foraminiferan (Rosalinidae). Sarsia 79: 65–82.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H43] Hinds, R. B. 1843a. On new species of Corbula and Potamomya. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 55–59.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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