Myriapoda

House centipede Scutigera coleoptrata, copyright Bruce Marlin.

Belongs within: Euarthropoda.
Contains: Symphyla, Pauropoda, Diplopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Geophilomorpha, Lithobiidae.

The Myriapoda are a clade of terrestrial arthropods with often elongate bodies composed of numerous, mostly undifferentiated segments. Respiration is by means of tracheae, and Malpighian tubules are present (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). They include the centipedes (Chilopoda), members of which have the first trunk segment modified into forcipules, with the appendages forming a pincer-like structure with poison glands opening near the tips (Mundel 1990). The remaining myriapods are united in a clade Progoneata supported the presence of gonopores near the front of the body, behind the second body segment.

<==Myriapoda [Stigmatopnea]
    |--Progoneata [Dignatha]RS10
    |    |--+--SymphylaAC19
    |    |  `--+--PauropodaAC19
    |    |     `--DiplopodaAC19
    |    `--ArthropleurideaW05
    |         |--MicrodecemplicidaW05
    |         |--ArthropleuraAC19 [ArthropleuridaW05]
    |         |    `--A. armata Jordan 1854RB93
    |         `--Eoarthropleuridae [Eoarthropleurida]W05
    |              |--Eoarthropleura devonica Størmer 1976RB93
    |              `--Tiphoscorpio hueberi Kjellesvig-Waering 1986RB93, S93
    `--Chilopoda [Anamorpha, Gonopodophora, Heteroterga, Syngnatha, Triakontapoda]AC19
         |  i. s.: Eucratonyx hamatusA27
         |         Cupipes impressusA27
         |           |--C. i. impressusA27
         |           `--C. i. armatusA27
         |--Scutigeromorpha [Notostigmophora, Scutigerida]BFM03
         |    |--PselliodesK55 [PselliodidaeM90, Pselliodinae]
         |    |    `--P. nigrovittata (Meinert 1886) (see below for synonymy)K55
         |    |--Latzelia [Gerascutigeridae, Latzeliidae]RB93
         |    |    `--L. primordialis Scudder 1890RB93
         |    `--ScutigeridaeM90
         |         |--AllothereuaGEW01
         |         |--Thereuopoda clunifera (Wood 1862)H04
         |         |--Pilbarascutigera incola (Verhoeff 1925)T13
         |         `--ScutigeraM90
         |              |--S. araneoidesG20
         |              |--S. coleoptrataM90
         |              |--S. complanataA01
         |              |--S. hispidaA01
         |              |--S. illigeri (Koch & Berendt 1854)RB93
         |              |--S. leachii (Koch & Berendt 1854)RB93
         |              `--S. linceci (Wood 1867) [=Cermatia linceci; incl. S. nubila Chamberlin 1922]K54
         `--PleurostigmophoraRS10
              |--+--CraterostigmusRS10 [CraterostigmomorphaBFM03]
              |  |    |--C. crabilli Edgecombe & Giribet 2008GFB14
              |  |    `--C. tasmanianusRS10
              |  `--+--DevonobiusRB93 [Devonobiidae, DevonobiomorphaBFM03]
              |     |    `--D. delta Shear & Bonamo 1988RB93
              |     `--EpimorphaM90
              |          |--ScolopendromorphaBFM03
              |          `--GeophilomorphaBFM03
              `--Lithobiomorpha [Lithobiida]BFM03
                   |--LithobiidaeBFM03
                   |--GosibiidaeM90
                   |--Bothropolys [Ethropolidae]M90
                   |--Pseudolithobius [Pseudolithobiidae]M90
                   |--AnopsobiusGFB14 [AnopsobiidaeM90]
                   |    `--A. neozelanicus Silvestri 1909GFB14
                   |--HenicopidaeM90
                   |    |--ZygethobiusM90
                   |    `--LamyctesM90
                   |         |--L. emarginatusM83
                   |         `--L. fulvicornisM90
                   `--WatobiidaeM90
                        |--Malbius Chamberlin 1943C62
                        |--TropobiusC62
                        `--CruzobiusC62
                             |--C. atoyacus Chamberlin 1942C62
                             |--C. pococki Crabill 1962C62
                             |--C. verus Chamberlin 1942C62
                             `--C. viganus Chamberlin 1944C62
Myriapoda incertae sedis:
  ThyropygusNS03
  Atractosoma hyalops Latzel 1889L89
  ArthronomalusE12
    |--A. brevicornis Newport 1848E12
    |--A. marginatus Newport 1848E12
    |--A. punctatus Newport 1848E12
    `--A. puncticeps Newport 1848E12
  Antrokoreana gracilipesWS10
  ‘Gervaisia’ Waga 1858 non Bonaparte 1854OF80
  Cambropodus gracilisRB93
  Kampecaris [Kampecarida]WSB93
    `--K. forfarensis Peach 1882WSB93
  Callipus Risso 1826R26
  Cermatia variegata Risso 1826R26
  Dolystenus saviiB82
  Prionosoma canestrinii [=Megalosoma canestrinii; incl. Craspedosoma marmoratum]B82
  LysiopetalumB82
    |--L. carinatum [incl. Callipus longipes, C. rissonius]B82
    |--L. foetidissimum [=Iulus foetidissimus, Eurygyrus foetidissimus]B82
    `--L. seriale [=Eurygyrus serialis]B82

Pselliodes nigrovittata (Meinert 1886) [=Scutigera nigrovittata; incl. P. colombiana Chamberlin 1921, Brasilophora trimarmorata Bücherl 1950]K55

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AC19] Aria, C., & J.-B. Caron. 2019. A middle Cambrian arthropod with chelicerae and proto-book gills. Nature 573: 586–589.

[A01] Attems, C. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[B82] Berlese, A. 1882. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fascicle 1. Typis Fratelli Salmin: Patavii.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[C62] Crabill, R. E., Jr. 1962. A new Cruzobius from Mexico (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Watobiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 133–136.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[GFB14] Giribet, G., R. Fernández & S. L. Boyer. 2014. On four poorly known harvestmen from New Zealand (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Eupnoi: Dyspnoi: Laniatores). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 41 (4): 223–233.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H04] Haupt, J. 2004. A new species of whipscorpion from Laos (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 151–155.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5–6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 360–362.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M90] Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887–1889.

[OF80] Olson, S. L., & A. Feduccia. 1980. Relationships and evolution of flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 316: 1–73.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[WS10] Wang, M., S. Sun, C. Li & X. Shen. 2010. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of the calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus, a useful molecular marker for phylogenetic and population studies. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 187–192. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[W05] Wilson, H. M. 2005. Zosterogrammida, a new order of millipedes from the Middle Silurian of Scotland and the Upper Carboniferous of Euramerica. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1101–1110.

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