Heoclisis fundata, copyright Shaun Winterton.

Belongs within: Myrmeleontiformia.
Contains: Cymothales, Protoplectrini, Myrmeleontini, Distoleontini, Periclystina, Dendroleontina.

The Myrmeleontidae, ant-lions, are a group of lacewings found in arid and semi-arid regions, best known for the conical pits built by the larvae of many species. The larva lies buried in the base of its pit, feeding on any insects that fall in. Most myrmeleontids have antennae that are thickened distally but lack a sharply separated club. An exception is the subfamily Stilbopteryginae whose members have strongly clubbed antennae, as well as relatively broad wings. The Acanthaclisinae are generally large, densely hairy ant-lions distinguished by the presence of femoral sense hairs on the hind legs. The Myrmeleontinae lack sense hairs on the hind legs, though they may be present on the fore legs, and are generally less hairy with more slender legs (New 1985a).

Characters (from New 1985a): Medium-sized to very large; costal area of wings with numerous crossveins and more or less well-defined pterostigma; usually one subcostal crossvein; Sc and R1 fused apically; trichosors absent; ocelli absent; face not markedly lengthened; hindwings not greatly narrowed at base; eyes not divided by transverse sulcus; antennae sometimes very short, always less than half forewing length, sometimes clubbed at or near apex.

<==Myrmeleontidae [Myrmeleonidae]
|--Echthromyrmex [Echthromyrmicinae]N85a
|--Stilbopteryginae [Stilbopterygidae]N85c
| |--Aeropteryx linearisN85a, R74
| `--StilbopteryxN85a
| |--S. costalisWHW10
| `--S. napoleoMC13
|--PalparesHM55 [PalparinaeN85a]
| |--P. latipennis Rambur 1842 (see below for synonymy)HM55
| |--P. libelluloidesVM20 [=Myrmeleo libelluloidesL49]
| |--P. obscuripennis Schmidt 1907 [=Palparellus obscuripennis]HM55
| |--P. obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 (see below for synonymy)HM55
| `--P. weeleiI92
|--Acanthaclisinae [Acanthaclisini]N85c
| |--Acanthaclisis boeticaL49
| |--Mestressa Navás 1914N85c
| | `--M. subfasciata (Banks 1913) [=Acanthaclisis subfasciatus; incl. *M. misera Navás 1914]N85c
| |--Arcuaplectron New 1985N85c
| | `--*A. woocallensis New 1985N85c
| |--Cosina Navás 1912N85c
| | |--*C. mclachlani (van der Weele 1904) [=Acanthaclisis mclachlani, Fadrina mclachlani]N85c
| | |--C. annulata (Esben-Petersen 1915) [=Acanthaclisis annulata]N85c
| | |--C. distivena New 1985N85c
| | |--C. maculata Esben-Petersen 1918N85c
| | |--C. nana New 1985N85c
| | `--C. vaga Navás 1914N85c
| `--Heoclisis Navás 1923N85c
| |--*H. fundata (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy)N85c
| |--H. acuta (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis acuta]N85c
| |--H. angustipennis New 1985N85c
| |--H. conspurcata (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Acanthaclisis conspurcata, Fadrina conspurcata]N85c
| |--H. fulva (Esben-Petersen 1912) [=Acanthaclisis fulva; incl. A. peterseni Tillyard 1916]N85c
| |--H. fulvifusa (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis fulvifusa]N85c
| |--H. ramosa New 1985N85c
| `--H. tillyardi (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis tillyardi]N85c
`--Myrmeleontinae [Dendroleoninae, Dendroleontinae, Myrmeleoninae]N85c
| i. s.: Solter liberVM20
| Megistoleon ritsemaeVM20
| ProtoplectriniN85a
`--Dendroleontini [Dendroleonini]N85b
| i. s.: Anomaloplectron Esben-Petersen 1918N85b
| `--*A. lineatipenne Esben-Petersen 1918N85b
| Platyleon Esben-Petersen 1923N85b
| `--*P. froggatti Esben-Petersen 1923N85b
| Indoclystus Banks 1941N85b
| `--*I. singularis [=Periclystus singularis]N85b
| Csiroleon New 1985N85b
| `--*C. tumidipalpus New 1985N85b
| Fusoleon New 1985N85b
| `--*F. stigmatus New 1985N85b
| Riekoleon New 1985N85b
| |--*R. convergens New 1985N85b
| `--R. furcatus New 1985N85b
| Parvoleon New 1985N85b
| `--*P. minimus New 1985N85b
| BanksiusB38
`--Acanthoplectron Esben-Petersen 1918 [Acanthoplectrina, Acanthoplectrini]N85b
|--*A. tenellum Esben-Petersen 1918N85b
`--A. umbratus New 1985N85b

Myrmeleontidae incertae sedis:
Brachynemurus [Brachynemurini]C90
`--B. darwiniPP72
Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) (see below for synonymy)HM55
|--C. d. distinctaHM55
`--C. d. lineatipennis (Péringuey 1910) [=Acanthaclisis lineatipennis, Sogra lineatipennis]HM55
Sograssa Navas 1924HM55
|--S. felina (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Acanthaclisis felina, Centroclisis felina, Sogra felina]HM55
`--S. superba (Navas 1912) [=Sogra superba]HM55
Avia nigrata (Navas 1912) [=Sogra nigrata]HM55
|--C. luteola Hölzel 1972M03
`--C. punctatissima (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Myrmeleon punctatissimus, Nesoleon punctatissimus]HM55
|--B. balliHM55
|--B. lethalis (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon lethalis, Formicaleo lethalis]HM55
`--B. lituratus Navas 1936HM55
|--N. filiformis (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Myrmeleon filiformis, Naldanus filiformis]HM55
`--N. notatus (Rambur 1842) [=Myrmeleon notatus; incl. Ne. alcidice Banks 1911, Naldanus alcidice]HM55
Gandulus iners Navas 1936HM55
Griala humeralis (Navas 1926) [=Naldanus humeralis, Landanus humeralis]HM55
Vessa guttata Navas 1930HM55
Ripalda insignisB38
Obus [Gamini]B38
Araucaleon Banks 1938 [Glenarini]B38
`--*A. inca Banks 1938B38
Liaoximyia sinica Hong 1988RJ93
Pseudimares aphroditeVM20
Bubo hamatus [=Ascalaphus hamatus]L49

Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) [=Acanthaclisis distincta, Sogra distincta; incl. S. iracunda Navas 1912, S. mordax Navas 1912, S. perversa Navas 1911]HM55

*Heoclisis fundata (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon fundatus, Acanthaclisis fundata; incl. M. subtendens Walker 1853, A. subtendens]N85c

Palpares latipennis Rambur 1842 [incl. Myrmeleon cephalotes Walker 1852, M. furfuraceus Walker 1852, M. inclemens Walker 1852, Palpares praetor Gerstaecker 1893, M. sollicitus Walker in McLachlan 1868, M. subducens Walker in McLachlan 1868]HM55

Palpares obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 [incl. P. bayeri Navas 1913, P. longicornis Navas 1911, P. paucimaculatus Kirby in Johnston 1902]HM55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B38] Banks, N. 1938. Two new genera of Myrmeleonidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 125–129.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E., & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M03] Mirmoayedi, A. 2003. Rearing the third stage larva of Cueta luteola Hölzel, 1972 (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) for the first time in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 101–104.

[N85a] New, T. R. 1985a. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). I. Introduction, Myrmeleontini, Protoplectrini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 104: 1–90.

[N85b] New, T. R. 1985b. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). II. Dendroleontini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 105: 1–170.

[N85c] New, T. R. 1985c. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). III. Distoleontini and Acanthaclisinae. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 106: 1–159.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R74] Riek, E. F. 1974. Neuroptera (lacewings). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 60–62. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

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