Myrmeleontiformia

Silky lacewing Psychopsis insolens, copyright Shaun Winterton.

Belongs within: Neoneuroptera.
Contains: Nemopteridae, Ascalaphidae, Myrmeleontidae, Prohemerobiidae, Kalligrammatidae.

The Myrmeleontiformia are a lineage of lacewings including the ant-lions, owlflies and related taxa, united by the presence in larvae of a modified prementum resembling a labial palp segment, and by features of the adult genitalia (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members include the Psychopsidae, broad-winged lacewings found in the warmer regions of the Old World (New 1991). Psychopsidae form the superfamily Psychopsoidea with a number of extinct families united by their broadly constructed costal field (Engel et al. 2018). Their sister group, the Myrmeleontoidea, are united by the presence of an enlarged and ventrally flattened premental element in larvae (Engel et al. 2018). The Nymphidae are an Australasian family of large lacewings whose larvae live in litter and become camouflaged by debris entangled in their long, coiled dorsal hairs (New 1991).

<==Myrmeleontiformia [Myrmeleonides]
| i. s.: Siniphes Ren & Yin 2002RY02
| `--*S. delicatus Ren & Yin 2002RY02
|--MyrmeleontoideaEWB18
| | i. s.: Choromyrmeleon othneiusWHW10
| | AscalochrysidaeYM12
| | Paleoleontidae [Palaeoleontinae]YM12
| | |--MetahemerobiusP02
| | |--Palaeoleon ferrogeneticusGE05
| | `--SamsonileonP02
| |--RafaelanidaeEWB18
| `--+--+--NemopteridaeEWB18
| | `--+--AscalaphidaeGE05
| | |--MyrmeleontidaeEWB18
| | `--BabinskaiaRJ93 [BabinskaiidaeGE05]
| | `--B. pulchra Martins-Neto & Vulcano 1989RJ93
| `--NymphidaeEWB18
| | i. s.: Mesonymphes rohdendorfiP02
| | CratosmylinaeEWB18
| | PronymphesP92
| |--Nymphinae [Nymphitidae]EWB18
| | |--Nymphes myrmeleonoidesWHW10
| | `--Epigambria longipennisRJ93
| `--+--Myiodactylus [Myiodactylidae, Myiodactylinae]WHW10
| | `--M. osmyloidesWHW10
| `--+--Norfolius howensisWHW10, EWB18
| `--Osmylops armatusWHW10
`--Psychopsoidea [Psychopsiformia]EWB18
| i. s.: Saucrosmylidae [Saucrosmylinae]YM12
| |--Saucrosmylus Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| | `--*S. sambneurus Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| |--Laccosmylus Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| | `--*L. calophlebius Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| |--Rudiosmylus Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| | `--*R. ningchengensis Ren & Yin 2003RY03
| `--Bellinympha Wang, Ren et al. in Wang, Liu et al. 2010WL10
| |--*B. filicifolia Wang, Ren et al. in Wang, Liu et al. 2010WL10
| `--B. dancei Wang, Ren et al. in Wang, Liu et al. 2010WL10
|--PanfiloviidaeEWB18
| |--Panfilovia Makarkin 1980R02
| | `--P. acuminataRJ93
| `--GrammolingiidaeEWB18
| |--Grammolingia Ren 2002R02
| | `--*G. boi Ren 2002R02
| |--Leptolingia Ren 2002R02
| | |--*L. jurassica Ren 2002R02
| | `--L. tianyiensis Ren 2002R02
| `--Litholingia Ren 2002R02
| |--*L. rhora Ren 2002R02
| |--L. eumorpha Ren 2002R02
| `--L. polychotoma Ren 2002R02
`--+--ProhemerobiidaeEWB18
`--+--+--KalligrammatidaeEWB18
| `--AetheogrammatidaeEWB18
`--+--Osmylopsychopidae [Brongniartiellidae, Osmylopsychopsidae]EWB18
| |--Petropsychops superbaGE05
| |--Osmylopsychops spilleraeR70a
| |--Actinophlebia intermixtaRJ93
| `--Pterinoblattina plumaRJ93
`--PsychopsidaeEWB18
|--Calopsychops extinctusP02
|--Kagapsychops continentalisP02
|--Notopsychops zebra (Brauer 1889) (see below for synonymy)HM55
|--Megapsychops illidgeiN91
|--Wernzia maculipennisR70b
|--Triassopsychops superbusEWB18
|--UndulopsychopsisYM12
|--PropsychopsisP92
|--Silveira [Zygophlebiinae]WHW10
| `--S. jordaniWHW10
`--Psychopsis [Psychopsinae]N91
|--P. elegansRD77
|--P. gracilisRD77
|--P. insolensZS10
|--P. maculipennisN91
|--P. margaritaWHW10
`--P. mimicaN91

Notopsychops zebra (Brauer 1889) [=Psychopsis zebra, Psychomorphe zebra, Zygophlebius zebra; incl. P. felina Navas 1912, Z. leoninus Navas 1910]HM55

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[EWB18] Engel, M. S., S. L. Winterton & L. C. V. Breitkreuz. 2018. Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: where have wings of lace taken us? Annual Review of Entomology 63: 531–551.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E. & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[N91] New, T. R. 1991. Neuroptera (lacewings). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 525–542. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02] Ren D. 2002. A new lacewing family (Neuroptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Entomologica Sinica 9 (4): 53–67.

[RY02] Ren D. & Yin J.-C. 2002. A new genus and new species of lacewings in the Jurassic of China (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 269–273.

[RY03] Ren, D., & J. Yin. 2003. New ‘osmylid-like’ fossil Neuroptera from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 111 (1): 1–11.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70a] Riek, E. F. 1970a. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[R70b] Riek, E. F. 1970b. Neuroptera (lacewings). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 472–494. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WL10] Wang, Y., Z. Liu, X. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Zhao, M. S. Engel & D. Ren. 2010. Ancient pinnate leaf mimesis among lacewings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16212-16215.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

[YM12] Yang, Q., V. N. Makarkin, S. L. Winterton, A. V. Khramov & D. Ren. 2012. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera) with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida. PLoS One 7 (9): e44762.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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