Myzostomatida

Myzostoma cirriferum, from Christoph Bleidorn.

Belongs within: Phyllodocida.

The Myzostomatida are a group of small marine worms that live in close association with echinoderms, either as commensals or parasites (Lanterbecq et al. 2006).

Characters (from Lanterbecq et al. 2006): Anterior introvert present. Trunk with five pairs of conical locomotory organs (parapodia) with distal hook-shaped chaeta and basal parapodial fold, alternating with four pairs of lateral sense organs; parapodia and lateral organs may be reduced or lost in parasitic forms.

<==Myzostomatida [Endomyzostomatidae, Myzostomaria, Myzostomida]
    |  i. s.: Stelechopus [Stelechopidae]LR06
    |           `--S. hyocriniLR06
    |         Mycomyzostoma calcidicolaLR06
    |--PharyngideaLR06
    |    |--Pulvinomyzostomum [Pulvinomyzostomatidae]LR06
    |    |    `--P. pulvinar (Graff 1884)LR06 [=Myzostoma pulvinarBK77]
    |    `--EndomyzostomaLR06
    |         |--E. cysticolum (Graff 1883)LR06
    |         `--+--E. deformator (Graff 1884)LR06
    |            `--+--E. clarki (McClendon 1906)LR06
    |               `--E. tenuispinum (Graff 1884)LR06
    `--MyzostomatidaeW93
         |--Myzostomites Clarke 1921W93, H75
         |    `--*M. clarkei Clarke 1921H75
         `--MyzostomaLR06 [=Myzostomum Leuckart 1827BK77, H62]
              |  i. s.: *Myzostomum’ costatum Leuckart 1827H62
              |         M. agassizii von Graff 1883C50
              |         ‘Myzostomum’ brevipesC50
              |         M. carpenteri [=Myzostomum carpenteri]BK77
              |         M. cirricostatum Jägersten 1937HG14
              |         M. fimbriatum [=Myzostomum fimbriatum]BK77
              |         M. giganteum [=Myzostomum giganteum]BK77
              |         M. gigas [=Myzostomum gigas]BK77
              |         M. graffi [=Myzostomum graffi]BK77
              |         M. nanseni von Graff 1887HG14
              |         ‘Myzostomum’ parasiticum [incl. Myzostoma tuberculosum Semper 1858]BK77
              |         ‘Myzostomum’ pictum von Graff 1884C50
              |         M. seymourcollegiorumDH08
              |         M. stochoeides Atkins 1927HG14
              |--+--M. cirriferum (Leuckart 1827)LR06 (see below for synonymy)
              |  `--+--M. alatum (Graff 1884)LR06 [=Myzostomum alatumBK77]
              |     `--M. glabrum (Leuckart 1842)LR06
              `--+--+--+--Notopharyngoides aruensis (Remscheid 1918)LR06
                 |  |  `--+--M. cuniculus (Eeckhaut, Grygier & Deheyn 1998)LR06
                 |  |     `--M. pseudocuniculus (Lanterbecq & Eeckhaut 2003)LR06
                 |  `--+--Contramyzostoma sphaera (Eeckhaut, Grygier & Deheyn 1998)LR06
                 |     `--+--M. capitocutis (Eeckhaut, VandenSpiegel & Grygier 1994)LR06
                 |        `--+--M. coriaceum (Graff 1884)LR06
                 |           `--M. nigromaculatum (Eeckhaut, Grygier & Deheyn 1998)LR06
                 `--+--+--+--M. polycyclus (Atkins 1927)LR06
                    |  |  `--M. toliarense (Lanterbecq & Eeckhaut 2003)LR06
                    |  `--+--M. ambiguum (Graff 1887)LR06
                    |     `--+--M. mortenseni (Jägersten 1842)LR06
                    |        `--+--Asteriomyzostomum [Asteriomyzostomatidae]LR06
                    |           `--Asteromyzostomum [Asteromyzostomatidae]LR06
                    `--+--+--+--M. fissum (Graff 1884)LR06
                       |  |  `--M. furcatum (Graff 1887)LR06
                       |  `--HypomyzostomaLR06
                       |       |--H. crosslandi (Boulenger 1913)LR06
                       |       |--H. dodecephalcis (Grygier 1992)LR06
                       |       `--H. fasciatum (Remscheid 1918)LR06
                       `--+--M. laingense (Eeckhaut, Grygier & Deheyn 1998)LR06
                          `--Mesomyzostoma [incl. Protomyzostomum; Mesomyzostomatidae, Protomyzostomatidae]LR06
                               |  i. s.: ‘Protomyzostomum’ sagamienseBK77
                               |--‘Protomyzostomum’ polynephris (Fedotov 1912)LR06 [=Protomyzostoma polynephrisBK77]
                               `--+--M. reichenspergi (Remscheid 1918)LR06
                                  `--+--‘Protomyzostomum’ glanduliferum (Bartsch 1995)LR06
                                     `--M. katoi (Okada 1933)LR06

Myzostoma cirriferum (Leuckart 1827)LR06 [=Myxostoma (l. c.) cirriferumBK77, Myzostomum cirriferumBK77; incl. Myzostomum schultzeanum Diesing 1858BK77, Cyclocirra thompsonii Müller 1841BK77, Myzostomum thompsoniBK77]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[C50] Clark, A. H. 1950. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 4c. Superfamily Tropiometrida (the families Thalassometridae and Charitometridae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82 vol. 1 (4c): 1–383.

[DH08] Dunn, C. W., A. Hejnol, D. Q. Matus, K. Pang, W. E. Browne, S. A. Smith, E. Seaver, G. W. Rouse, M. Obst, G. D. Edgecombe, M. V. Sørensen, S. H. D. Haddock, A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. Okusu, R. M. Kristensen, W. C. Wheeler, M. Q. Martindale & G. Giribet. 2008. Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452: 745–749.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HG14] Hutchings, P., C. Glasby, M. Capa & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: polychaetes (Annelida). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 133–159.

[LR06] Lanterbecq, D., G. W. Rouse, M. C. Milinkovitch & I. Eeckhaut. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida (Protostomia). Systematic Biology 55 (2): 208–227.

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