Common Pacific phos Phos senticosus, copyright Hectonichus.

Belongs within: Buccinoidea.
Contains: Phos, Tomliniinae, Columbellidae, Nassariinae.

The Nassariidae, dog whelks, are a group of mostly scavenging marine neogastropods, most commonly found in sandy or muddy areas in shallow waters. They are small to medium in size, with a shell bearing a high spire and oval aperture. Within the Nassariidae, members of the Nassariinae and Cyllene are generally smaller than Dorsaninae or Bullia. The shell aperture of Cyllene has a thick outer lip with a prominently lirate interior, and the columella is calloused and distinctly plicate. Phos is a genus of relatively large nassariids with multicuspidate rachidian teeth on the radula.

<==Nassariidae [Alectrionidae, Arculariidae, Nassidae, Nassina, Nassinae]
    |--Photinae [Phosina]KF22
    |    |  i. s.: Microphos Dekkers & Dekker 2020KF22
    |    |           `--*M. palogai Dekkers & Dekker 2020KF22
    |    |--Engoniophos Woodring 1928KF22
    |    |    |--*E. erectus (Guppy 1873) [=Phos erectus]KF22
    |    |    `--E. unicinctus (Say 1826) [incl. Nassa guadelupensis Petit de la Saussaye 1852]KF22
    |    `--+--Northia Gray 1847KF22
    |       |    |--*N. pristis (Deshayes 1844) [=Buccinum pristis]KF22
    |       |    `--N. serrata [=Buccinum serratum; incl. Nassa northiae]C64
    |       `--+--PhosKF22
    |          `--Antillophos Woodring 1928KF22
    |               `--*A. candeanus (d’Orbigny 1842)KF22 (see below for synonymy)
       |  `--+--ColumbellidaeKF22
       |     `--CylleninaeKF22
       |          |--Neoteron Pilsbry & Lowe 1932KF22
       |          |    `--*N. ariel (Pilsbry & Lowe 1932) [=Hindsia ariel]KF22
       |          `--Cyllene Gray 1834BR05 [incl. Radulphus Iredale 1924W94]
       |               |--*C. owenii Gray 1834BR17 [incl. C. senegalensis Petit de la Saussaye 1853KF22]
       |               |--C. cernohorskyi Fernandes & Rolán 1992BC01
       |               |--C. fuscata Adams 1851KF22
       |               |--C. lactea Adams & Angas 1864W94
       |               |--‘Radulphus’ necopinatus Finlay 1930P61
       |               |--C. parvula Bozzetti 2014KF22
       |               |--C. pulchella Adams & Reeve 1850 (see below for synonymy)W94
       |               |--C. royana (Iredale 1924) [=*Radulphus royanus]W94
       |               |--C. rubrolineata Sowerby 1870MG-H11
       |               |--C. sibogae Schepman 1911W94
       |               |--C. sulcata Sowerby 1859W94
       |               `--C. unimaculata Adams 1855W94
          |    |--Oligohalinophila Neiber & Glaubrecht 2019KF22
          |    |    `--*O. dorri (Wattebled 1886) [=Canidia dorri]KF22
          |    |--Clea Adams & Adams 1855KF22
          |    |    `--*C. nigricans Adams 1855KF22
          |    `--Anentome Cossmann 1901 [=Canidia Adams 1862 non Thomson 1857]KF22
          |         |--*A. helena (von dem Busch 1847) [=Melania helena, *Canidia helena]KF22
          |         `--A. cambodjensis [=Clea (Anentome) cambodjensis]G88
          |  `--+--Naytia Adams & Adams 1853KF22
          |     |    `--*N. glabrata (Sowerby 1842) [=Strombus glabratus]KF22
          |     `--Dorsanum Gray 1847 [incl. Duplicata Korobokov 1955; Dorsaninae, Duplicatinae]KF22
          |          |--D. miran (Bruguière 1789)KF22 (see below for synonymy)
          |          |--‘Buccinum’ duplicatum Sowerby 1832 [=*Duplicata duplicata]BR17
          |          `--D. fuscumPB27
          `--Bullia Gray 1833 [Bulliinae]KF22
               |--*B. semiplicata Gray 1833BR17
               |--B. achatina [incl. B. digitalis]SML68
               |--B. annulata Lamarck 1816HJ08
               |--B. cataphracta Kilburn 1978KF22
               |--B. laevissima (Gmelin 1791)KF22
               |--B. perlucida Bozzetti 2014KF22
               |--B. rhodostomaC60
               `--B. rogersi Smythe in Smythe & Chatfield 1981BC01
Nassariidae incertae sedis:
  Nanina Risso 1826BR05
    |--N. (Acusta) assimilis Adams 1866A66
    |--N. bistrialisP42
    |--N. sieboldtianaA66
    `--N. sulfurataC84
  Psilarius Woodring 1964 [=Leptarius Woodring 1964 non Gill 1864]W64
    `--*P. leptus (Woodring 1964) [=*Leptarius leptus]W64
    |--U. swearingeni Petuch & Myers 2014PMB15
    `--U. websteri Petuch & Sargent 2011PMB15

*Antillophos candeanus (d’Orbigny 1842)KF22 [=Cancellaria candeanaKF22, C. candei d’Orbigny 1853PH90; incl. Phos antillarum Petit de la Saussaye 1853KF22]

Cyllene pulchella Adams & Reeve 1850 [incl. C. bantamensis Oostingh 1939, C. glabrata Adams 1851, C. oblonga Schepman 1911, C. striata Adams 1851]W94

Dorsanum miran (Bruguière 1789)KF22 [incl. Buccinum politum Lamarck 1822KF22, *D. politumKF22, Terebra politaH43]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A66] Adams, H. 1866. Descriptions of fifteen new species of land and freshwater shells from Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., consul at Taiwan in that island. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 316–319.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C84] Cain, A. J. 1984. Heterosematism in snails. Malacologia 25 (1): 161–172.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H43] Hinds, R. B. 1843. Synopsis of the genus Terebra. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 159–168.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[KF22] Kantor, Y. I., A. E. Fedosov, A. R. Kosyan, N. Puillandre, P. A. Sorokin, Y. Kano, R. Clark & P. Bouchet. 2022. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the Buccinoidea (Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 194 (3): 789–857.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[PMB15] Petuch, E. J., R. F. Myers & D. P. Berschauer. 2015. The Living and Fossil Busycon Whelks: Iconic Mollusks of Eastern North America. San Diego Shell Club, Inc.

[P42] Pfeiffer, L. 1842. Descriptions of new species of shells, collected by Hugh Cuming, Esq. in the Philippine Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 150–153.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SML68] Schaefer, C. W., P. Milch & N. L. Levin. 1968. Death from desiccation in the mud-snail, Nassarius obsoletus: effect of temperature. Nautilus 81 (4): 109–114.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[W64] Woodring, W. P. 1964. Psilarius, new name for Leptarius Woodring, 1964 not Leptarius Gill, 1864 (Gastropoda, Nassariidae). Nautilus 77 (4): 143.

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