Nasutitermitinae

Tumulitermes soldiers, copyright Melinda Hillery.

Belongs within: Termitinae.
Contains: Eutermes, Nasutitermes, Bulbitermes.

The Nasutitermitinae, nasute termites, are a distinct group of termites in which the head capsule of the soldier caste has an enlarged frontal gland and the fontanelle placed on a protruding rostrum, allowing the ejection of defensive chemicals at threats to the colony. The development of the rostrum is correlated with the reduction of the mandibles which are usually non-functional in the soldiers. The mandibles retain sharp points in the basal genera Angularitermes and Mimeutermes (Ahmad 1950). Members of the African genera Mimeutermes and Postsubulitermes feed on humus, presumably digesting the decomposed vegetable matter it contains.

<==Nasutitermitinae [Nasutitermitidae]
    |--+--Angularitermes nasutissimusIVE07, A50
    |  |--Mimeutermes giffardiiA50
    |  `--Postsubulitermes parviconstrictusIVE07
    `--+--+--Cyranotermes caeteIVE07
       |  |--Atlantitermes oculatissimusIVE07
       |  |--Obtusitermes panamaeIVE07, A50
       |  |--Coatitermes kartaboensisIVE07
       |  `--+--VelocitermesIVE07
       |     |    |--V. beebeiS57
       |     |    `--V. heteropterus [=Eutermes heteropterus]S57
       |     `--+--Convexitermes manniA50
       |        `--SubulitermesIVE07
       |             |--*S. microsomaA50 [=Nasutitermes microsomaS57]
       |             |--S. baileyiIVE07
       |             |--S. oculatissimusA50
       |             `--S. undecimusRD77
       `--+--+--Fulleritermes coatoniIVE07
          |  `--+--Leptomyxotermes doriaeIVE07
          |     `--Rhadinotermes coarctusIVE07
          `--+--+--Oriensubulitermes inanisIVE07
             |  `--+--‘Nasutitermes’ longinasusIVE07
             |     `--HavilanditermesIVE07
             |          |--H. atripennisA50
             |          `--H. proatripennisIVE07
             `--+--NasutitermesIVE07
                |--Leucopitermes leucopsIVE07
                |--+--Aciculitermes maymyoensisIVE07
                |  `--Malaysiotermes spinocephalusIVE07
                |--+--AustralitermesIVE07
                |  |    |--A. dilucidusWG91
                |  |    |--A. insignitus [=Termes insignitus]WG91
                |  |    `--A. perlevis [=Macrosubulitermes perlevis]WG91
                |  `--+--+--Eutermellus convergensA50
                |     |  `--OccasitermesIVE07
                |     |       |--O. occasus (Silvestri 1909) [=Eutermes (Occasitermes) occasus]H42
                |     |       `--O. watsoniWG91
                |     `--TumulitermesIVE07
                |          |  i. s.: T. peracutus (Hill 1925)J13
                |          |         T. recalvusWG91
                |          |--T. westraliensisIVE07
                |          `--+--T. apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909)IVE07, H42 (see below for synonymy)
                |             `--+--T. hastilis (Froggatt 1898)IVE07, J13
                |                `--‘Nasutitermes’ eucalypti (Mjöberg 1920)IVE07, J13
                `--+--BulbitermesIVE07
                   `--+--ConstrictotermesS57
                      |    |--C. cavifronsS57
                      |    `--C. cyphergasterS57
                      `--+--LacessititermesIVE07
                         |    |--L. batavusA50
                         |    `--L. laboratorS57
                         `--+--Longipeditermes longipesIVE07
                            `--HospitalitermesIVE07
                                 |--H. asahinaiSVT04
                                 |--H. ataramensisSVT04
                                 |--H. bicolorSVT04
                                 |--H. birmanicusSVT04
                                 |--H. butteli [=Eutermes butteli]S57
                                 |--H. hospitalisA50
                                 |--H. jepsoniSVT04
                                 |--H. medioflavusSVT04
                                 `--H. monocerosIVE07
Nasutitermitinae incertae sedis:
  EutermesH42
  Macrosubulitermes greavesiWG91
  OccultitermesWG91
    |--O. aridusWG91
    `--O. occultusWG91
  Diversitermes diversimilis [=Nasutitermes diversimiles]S57
  Triacitermes triaciferA50
  Rhynchotermes nasutissimusA50
  Hirtitermes spinocephalusA50
  GrallatotermesA50
    |--G. africanusS57
    `--G. splendidusA50
  Rotunditermes rotundicepsA50
  ParvitermesA50
    |--P. discolorA50
    `--P. pallidicepsA50

Tumulitermes apiocephalus (Silvestri 1909)IVE07, H42 [=Eutermes apiocephalusH42; incl. E. (Tumulitermes) aagaardi Mjöberg 1920H42]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A50] Ahmad, M. 1950. The phylogeny of termite genera based on imago-worker mandibles. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 95 (2): 37–86.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[IVE07] Inward, D. J. G., A. P. Vogler & P. Eggleton. 2007. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of termites (Isoptera) illuminates key aspects of their evolutionary biology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 953–967.

[J13] Jones, D. T. 2013. The termites of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 241–244.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S57] Seevers, C. H. 1957. A monograph on the termitophilous Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). Fieldiana Zoology 40: 1–334.

[SVT04] Sornnuwat, Y., C. Vongkaluang & Y. Takematsu. 2004. A systematic key to termites of Thailand. Kasetsart Journal of Natural Science 38 (3): 349–368.

[WG91] Watson, J. A. L., & F. J. Gay. 1991. Isoptera (termites). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 330–347. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

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