Naticarius alapapilionis, photographed by Neville Coleman.

Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Euspira, Friginatica, PolinicesNaticarius, NaticaNeverita, Sinum.

The Naticidae, moon shells, are carnivorous intertidal marine gastropods. Their name comes from the globular shiny shell of most species though members of the Sininae have flattened, ear-shaped shells. In life, the shell is covered or nearly covered by the expanded foot and the animal moves just below the surface of the sand in which it lives, leaving a visible trail. Moon shells are predators of other molluscs, using their radula (assisted by acid secretions) to bore a neat hole through the shell of their prey. Historically, the subfamilies Naticinae and Polinicinae have been distinguished by whether the operculum is calcareous or horny, respectively, but recent phylogenetic studies have not supported this distinction. The New Zealand genus Globisinum lacks an operculum and the animal has a greatly enlarged spongy foot that cannot be completely retracted.

<==Naticidae [Anoperculatae, Aspidophora, Naticacea, Naticina, Naticoidea, Sinidae]
    |--Globisinum Marwick 1924 [Globisininae]BR05
    |    |--*G. drewi (Murdoch 1899)P61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--G. crassiliratum Finlay 1926F27a
    |    |--G. elegansA27
    |    |--G. miocaenicumA27
    |    |--G. pritchardi (Cossmann 1907) [=Natica pritchardi, N. arata Tate 1893 non Morris & Lycett 1854]F27b
    |    `--G. undulatum [=Ampullina undulata]F27a
    `--Naticinae [Polinicinae]BR05
         |  i. s.: EuspiraBR05
         |         Choristes Carpenter in Dawson 1872BR05, ICZN03 [Choristacea, Choristeidae]
         |           |--*C. elegans Carpenter 1872BR17
         |           `--C. coani Marincovich 1975BC01
         |         Mammilla Schumacher 1817 [Mammillinae]BR05
         |           |--*M. fasciata Schumacher 1817BR17
         |           |--M. fibrosa (Eydoux & Souleyet 1852)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--M. maura (Lamarck 1816)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--M. melanostoma (Gmelin 1791)W93 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--M. melanostomoides (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)W93 [=Natica melanostomoidesH09, Polinices melanostomoidesW93]
         |           |--M. sebae (Récluz 1844) [=Polinices sebae]W93
         |           `--M. simiae Deshayes 1838 (see below for synonymy)W93
         |         Tasmatica Finlay & Marwick 1937W93
         |           `--*T. schoutanica (May 1912) (see below for synonymy)W93
         |         FriginaticaW93
         `--+--+--‘Natica’ livida Pfeiffer 1840S11
            |  |    |--N. l. lividaBC01
            |  |    `--N. l. oceani Usticke 1959BC01
            |  `--+--‘Natica’ marochiensis (Gmelin 1791)S11
            |     `--+--Stigmaulax sulcatus (Born 1778)S11
            |        `--NaticariusS11
               `--+--+--‘Polinices’ lewisii (Gould 1847)S11 [=P. (Euspira) lewisiiO27]
                  |  `--+--NeveritaS11
                  |     `--Conuber Finlay & Marwick 1937S11, W93
                  |          |--*C. conicus (Lamarck 1822)W93 (see below for synonymy)
                  |          |--C. melastomus (Swainson 1822) [=Polinices melastomus]W93
                  |          |--C. putealis (Garrard 1961) [=Polinices putealis]W93
                  |          `--C. sordidus (Swainson 1821)W93 (see below for synonymy)
                       |--Cryptostomus Blainville 1818 [Cryptostomidae]BR05
                       |--Gennaeosinum Iredale 1929W93
                       |    |--*G. peleum Iredale 1929W93
                       |    `--G. intercisum Iredale 1931W93
                       `--Naticina Gray 1847BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                            |--*N. papilla (Gmelin 1791)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
                            |--‘Eunaticina’ albosutura (Verco 1909)W93
                            |--‘Eunaticina’ linnaeana (Récluz 1843) (see below for synonymy)W93
                            |--‘Eunaticina’ nitida (Reeve 1864)W93
                            |--‘Eunaticina’ oldroydii Dall 1897O27
                            |--‘Eunaticina’ pictum (Reeve 1864)W93
                            `--E. umbilicata (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) [=*Propesinum umbilicatum]W93
Naticidae incertae sedis:
  Sigaretotrema Sacco 1890WG71
    `--S. umbilicata Quoy & Gaimard 1833WG71
    |--L. approximata (Etheridge & Bell in Harmer 1919) (see below for synonymy)F27b
    |--L. gilvaZLK11
    |--L. heros (Say 1822)S11
    |--L. lewisii Gld. 1847 (see below for synonymy)C64
    |--L. pallidaC64 [=Natica pallidaC64; incl. N. lacteaJ64]
    |--L. pallidoidesC64
    |--L. pilaGAS03
    `--L. septentrionalisC64
  Amauropsis Morch 1857O27
    |--*A. islandica (Gmelin 1791)S11
    |--A. andersoni (Strebel 1906)S11
    |--A. canaliculata [=Natica canaliculata]O27
    |--A. notoleptos Stilwell et al. 2004SH12
    `--A. purpurea Dall 1871O27
  Carinacca Marwick 1924F27a
    |--*C. waihaoensis [=Ampullina waihaoensis]F27a
    |--C. allani [=Natica allani]A27
    `--C. haasti [=Natica haasti]A27
  Bulbus Brown 1839 [incl. Acrybia Adams & Adams 1853]O27
    |--*B. flavus [=Natica flava]O27
    `--B. fragilis (Leach 1819)O27
         |--B. f. fragilisO27
         `--B. f. apertus Lovèn in Middendorff 1851O27 [=Acrybia apertaC64, Lunatia apertaC64]
  Magnatica Marwick 1924F27a
    |--M. (Magnatica)F27b
    |    |--*M. (M.) planispira (Suter 1917) (see below for synonymy)F27b
    |    `--M. (M.) approximata (Suter 1917) [=Turbo (Marmorostoma) approximata, Natica (Mag.) approximata]F27b
    `--M. (Spelaenacca Finlay 1926)F27a
         `--M. (*S.) altior Finlay 1926F27a
  Tanea Marwick 1931P61
    `--*T. zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1832)P61 [=Natica zelandicaP61, Cochlis zelandicaF27a]
  Euspirocrommium Sacco 1890DK08
    |--E. effusa (Tate 1893)DK08
    `--E. levesqueiDK08
  Proxiuber Powell 1933P61
    |--*P. australe (Hutton 1878)P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--P. hulmei Powell 1954P61
  Uberella Finlay 1928P61
    |--*U. vitrea (Hutton 1873) [=Natica vitrea]P61
    |--U. alacris Dell 1956P61
    |--U. amphialis (Watson 1881)P61
    |--U. barrierensis (Marwick 1924)P61
    |--U. cicatrixB70
    `--U. denticulifera (Marwick 1924)P61
  Falsilunatia Powell 1951P61
    |--*F. solutaP61 [=Natica (Lunatia) solutaP61, C64]
    |--F. apora Watson 1881P61
    |--F. pisum (Hedley 1916)P61
    |--F. powelli Dell 1956P61
    `--F. subperforata Dell 1956P61
  Euspirella Petuch & Drolshagen 2009P12
    `--E. permeliae Petuch & Drolshagen 2009P12
  Poliniciella Petuch 1988P12
    `--P. marylandica Petuch 1988P12
  Taniella Finlay & Marwick 1937B70
    |--*T. (Taniella) notocenica (Finlay 1924)B70 [=Natica notocenicaB70, Cochlis notocenicaF27a]
    `--T. (Pristinacca Finlay & Marwick 1937)B70
         |--T. (*P.) senisculus (Marwick 1924) [=Uber senisculus]B70
         |--T. (P.) motutaraensis (Powell 1935) [=Polinices motutaraensis]B70
         `--T. (P.) poliniciformis Beu 1970B70

*Conuber conicus (Lamarck 1822)W93 [=Natica conicusH09, Polinices conicusW93, Uber conicumM54; incl. P. pyramis Reeve 1855W93, P. ustulata Sowerby 1883W93]

Conuber sordidus (Swainson 1821)W93 [=Polinices sordidusW93; incl. P. leucophaea Reeve 1855W93, P. microstoma Quoy & Gaimard 1833W93, Natica plumbea Lamarck 1822H09, P. plumbeusW93, P. strangei Reeve 1855W93]

‘Eunaticina’ linnaeana (Récluz 1843) [incl. *Pervisinum dingeldeii Iredale 1931, E. flindersi Cotton & Godfrey 1931]W93

*Globisinum drewi (Murdoch 1899)P61 [=Sigaretus drewiP61; incl. S. undulatus Hutton 1885 nec Lischke 1872 nec Martin 1885F27b, Ampullina venustaF27a, Globisinum venustumP61, G. wollastoni Finlay 1927P61, F27b]

Lunatia approximata (Etheridge & Bell in Harmer 1919) [=Natica (Lunatia) approximata non Turbo (Marmorostoma) approximata Suter 1917 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)]F27b

Lunatia lewisii Gld. 1847 [=Natica lewisii; incl. N. herculaea Middendorff 1849, Lunatia herculaea, N. inezana]C64

*Magnatica (Magnatica) planispira (Suter 1917) [=Polinices planispirus non Natica planispira Phillips 1836 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.), N. (Magnatica) suteri Marwick 1924]F27b

Mammilla fibrosa (Eydoux & Souleyet 1852)W93 [=Polinices fibrosaW93; incl. Natica filosa Reeve 1855H09, P. filosaW93]

Mammilla maura (Lamarck 1816)W93 [=Polinices maurusW93; incl. Nerita nuxcastanea Hedley 1913H09, W93, P. nuxcastaneaW93]

Mammilla melanostoma (Gmelin 1791)W93 [=Natica melanostomaW93, Polinices melanostomusW93; incl. Albula mammata Röding 1798P61, W93, Mammilla mammataP61, Polinices mammatusW93, Mammilla opaca Récluz 1851WG71, W93, P. putamen Mörch 1852W93, P. succineoides Reeve 1855W93]

Mammilla simiae Deshayes 1838 [=Polinices simiae; incl. P. plumatilis Iredale 1936, P. propesimniae Iredale 1929]W93

Naticina Gray 1847BR17 [=Eunaticina Fischer 1885S11, BR05; incl. Pervisinum Iredale 1931W93, Propesinum Iredale 1924W93; Eunaticini, Eunaticinini]

*Naticina papilla (Gmelin 1791)BR17 [=Nerita papillaBR17, *Eunaticina papillaBR17, Sigaretus papillaO27; incl. E. cancellata Swainson 1840W93, E. costulata Quoy & Gaimard 1833W93, E. tranquebarica Röding 1798W93]

*Proxiuber australe (Hutton 1878)P61 [=Lunatia australisP61, Cochlis australisF27b, Natica australis nec Bosc 1801 nec d’Orbigny 1842F27b, N. maoria Finlay 1924F27b]

*Tasmatica schoutanica (May 1912) [=Natica schoutanica, Notocochlis schoutanica; incl. No. schoutanica diatheca Iredale 1936, Natica sticta Verco 1909]W93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[B70] Beu, A. G. 1970. Bathyal Upper Miocene Mollusca from Wairarapa district, New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Earth Sciences 7 (12): 209–240.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[ICZN03] ICZN. 2003. Choristidae Verrill, 1882 (Mollusca, Gastropoda): spelling emended to Choristeidae, so removing the homonymy with Choristidae Esben-Petersen, 1915 (Insecta, Mecoptera). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60 (3): 224–225.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SH12] Stilwell, J. D., & E. Håkansson. 2012. Survival, but…! New tales of ‘dead clade walking’ from Austral and Boreal post-K–T assemblages. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 795–810. Springer.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *