Barred grass snake Natrix natrix helvetica, copyright Benny Trapp.

Belongs within: Colubriformes.
Contains: Thamnophis.

The Natricinae, watersnakes, are a group of snakes characterised by the presence of hypapophyses on all dorsal vertebrae, and minutely spinose hemipenes bearing one or more enlarged basal hooks. Members of the subfamily commonly hunt around water, feeding on small aquatic vertebrates.

Natricidae [Natricinae]
| | | |--X. flavipunctatusVH02
| | | |--X. psicatorBG20
| | | `--X. trianguligerusVH02
| | `--Amphiesma stolataBG20
| `--+--Afronatrix anoscopusBG20
| `--Macropisthodon rudisBG20
| |--S. annularisVH02
| `--S. percarinataBG20
`--+--Natrix Laurenti 1768BG20, RB05
| |--N. chrysargaD56
| |--N. fasciatusF15 [=Nerodia fasciataW06, Tropidonotus fasciatusW06]
| |--N. longivertebrata Szyndlar 1984RB05
| |--N. merkurensis Ivanov 2002RB05
| |--N. mlynarskii Rage 1988B93
| |--N. natrix (Linnaeus 1758)VK00 [=Coluber natrixK08, Tropidonotus natrixM01]
| | |--N. n. natrixM55a
| | |--N. n. cettiM55a
| | `--N. n. helveticaM55a
| |--N. piscatorD56
| |--N. sansaniensis (Lartet 1851) [=Coluber sansaniensis, Pilemophis sansaniensis, Pylmophis sansaniensis]RB05
| |--N. septemvittataR56
| |--N. stolataCS77
| |--N. tesselataM55b [=N. tessellata (l. c.)M55b, Tropidonotus tessellatusK08]
| `--N. torquataG42
`--+--Tropidoclonion lineatumBG20
| |--T. l. lineatumF68
| `--T. l. annectensF68
`--+--Seminatrix pygaeaBG20
| |--S. dekayiBG20 [=Ischnognathus dekayiW06]
| `--S. occipitomaculataVH02b [=Ischnognathus occipitomaculatusW06]

Natricidae incertae sedis:
Palaeonatrix Szyndlar 1982RB05
|--P. lehmani (Rage & Roček 1983) [=Dolniceophis lehmani]RB05
`--P. silesiaca Syndlar 1982RB05
Neonatrix Holman 1973RB05
|--N. europaea Rage & Holman 1984RB05
|--N. natricoides Augé & Rage 2000RB05
`--N. novaRB05
|--N. harteriJP79
|--N. rhombiferaVK00
|--N. sipedonBK03 [=Natrix sipedonFM80]
| |--N. s. sipedonBK03
| `--N. insularumBK03
`--N. taxispilotaVH02
Natriciteres olivaceaVH02
Rhabdophis subminiatusVH02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[BK03] Bittner, T. D., & R. B. King. 2003. Gene flow and melanism in garter snakes revisited: a comparison of molecular markers and island vs. coalescent models. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 389–399.

[BG20] Burbrink, F. T., F. G. Grazziotin, R. A. Pyron, D. Cundall, S. Donnellan, F. Irish, J. S. Keogh, F. Kraus, R. W. Murphy, B. Noonan, C. J. Raxworthy, S. Ruane, A. R. Lemmon, E. M. Lemmon & H. Zaher. 2020. Interrogating genomic-scale data for Squamata (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) shows no support for key traditional morphological relationships. Systematic Biology 69 (3): 502–520.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F68] Fisher, D. R. 1968. A study of faunal resemblance using numerical taxonomy and factor analysis. Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 48–63.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Cold-blooded vertebrates from Florida, the West Indies, Costa Rica, and eastern Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 244–269.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Observations on the muscular fibres of the oesophagus and heart in some of the vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 63–72.

[JP79] Jackson, J. F. & J. A. Pounds. 1979. Comments on assessing the dedifferentiating effect of gene flow. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 78–85.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the herpetological collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[M01] Méhely, L. 1901. Csúszómászók és kétéltűek [Reptilien und Amphibien]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 41–68. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M55a] Mertens, R. 1955a. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Insel Elba. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 287–296.

[M55b] Mertens, R. 1955b. Der Typus von Vipera lebetina schweizeri. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 297–299.

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413–441.

[R56] Reed, C. F. 1956. The herpetofauna of Harford County, Maryland. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (2): 58–60.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of caenophidian snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 987–995.

[VK00] Vidal, N., S. G. Kindl, A. Wong & S. B. Hedges. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of xenodontine snakes inferred from 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14: 389–402.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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