Liagora ceranoides, copyright Stan van Remmerden.

Belongs within: Nemaliophycidae.

The Nemaliales are a group of red algae possessing erect, multiaxial thalli.

Characters (from Flora of South Australia): Thallus of gametophyte and occasionally sporophyte erect, 1–30 cm high, usually much branched irregularly or subdichotomously, branches terete to compressed, multiaxial with a filamentous medulla (occasionally becoming hollow) and an anticlinal filamentous or pseudoparenchymatous cortex; some taxa calcified; sporophytes minute, of discrete filaments, or crustose, or similar to gametophytes but dimorphic. Cells uninucleate, rhodoplasts parietal, lobed to stellate, with or without pyrenoids. Growth of branches and of filaments apical. Carpogonial branches 3- or 4-celled, lateral or terminal on cortical filaments, with the lower cells (hypogynous, basal or supporting cells) usually producing sterile filaments forming a loose to dense involucre. Gonimoblast filaments developing from fertilised carpogonium, directly or after subdivision, producing carposporangia terminally, singly or in short chains; carposporophytes lying within cortex or outer medulla, with or without a sterile involucre, cystocarps ostiolate or not. Spermatangia cut off from outer cortical cells or within conceptacles. Tetrasporangia cruciately divided, borne on filamentous or crustose sporophytes or on erect sporophytes. Life history triphasic, heteromorphic or more or less isomorphic but with gametophytes structurally dimorphic.

Nemaliales [Gloiocladieae, Helminthocladieae, Nemalionales]
| |--Helminthocladia purpureaG64
| `--ChantransiaL27
| |--C. corymbifera Thur. 1863L27
| |--C. naumanni Asken. 1888 [incl. C. interposita]L27
| `--C. polyrhizaL27
|--Chaetangiaceae [Scinaieae]S57
| |--Whidbeyella cartilaginea Setchell & Gardner 1903S57
| |--GloiophloeaS57
| | |--G. confusa Setchell 1914S57
| | `--G. scinaioides Agardh 1870L27
| `--ChaetangiumL27
| |--C. fastigiatumL27
| `--C. variolosum (Montagne) Agardh 1851L27
| |--Actinotrichia Decaisne 1842HL09
| | `--A. fragilis (Forsskål) Børegesen 1932 [=Fucus fragilis Forsskål 1775]HL09
| |--Tricleocarpa Huisman & Borowitzka 1990HL09
| | |--T. cylindrica (Ellis & Solander) Huisman & Borowitzka 1990 [=Corallina cylindrica Ellis & Solander 1786]HL09
| | `--T. fragilis (Linnaeus) Huisman & Townsend 1993HS14
| |--Dichotomaria Lamarck 1816HL09
| | |--D. marginata (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816 (see below for synonymy)HL09
| | |--D. aurantiacaR26
| | |--D. obtusata (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816HS14
| | `--D. versicolorR26
| |--ScinaiaHS14
| | |--S. furcellata (Turner) Bivona 1822L27
| | | |--S. f. var. furcellataL27
| | | `--S. f. var. australis Agardh 1876L27
| | `--S. tsinglanensis Tseng 1941HS14
| `--Galaxaura Lamourox 1812HL09
| |--G. collabensHK90
| |--G. diesingianaL27
| |--G. fastigiataE56
| |--G. filamentosa Chou 1945HS14
| |--G. glabriusculaE56
| |--G. obtusataHK90
| |--G. rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux 1816 [=Corallina rugosa Ellis & Solander 1786]HL09
| `--G. umbellata [=Tubularia umbellata]G20
|--Cumagloia andersonii (Farlow) Setchell & Gardner in Gardner 1917HS02, S57
| |--H. australisHSA03
| `--H. divaricataG64
|--Titanophycus Huisman, Saunders & Sherwood 2006HL09
| `--T. validus (Harvey) Huisman, Saunders & Sherwood 2006 [=Liagora valida Harvey 1853]HL09
| |--N. helminthoides (Velley) Batters 1902S57
| |--N. lubricumG64
| |--N. multifidumG64
| `--N. ramulosum Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
|--Ganonema Fan & Wang 1974 non McLachlan 1866 (ICZN)HL09
| |--G. borowitzkae Huisman 2002HS14
| |--G. clavatum [=Liagora clavata]HSA03
| |--G. farinosum (Lamouroux) Fan & Wang 1974HL09 [=Liagora farinosa Lamouroux 1816HL09; incl. L. elongataHSA03]
| |--G. megagynum [=Liagora megagyna]HSA03
| `--G. pinnatum (Harvey) Huisman 2002 [=Liagora pinnata Harvey 1853]HL09
|--Trichogloea requienii (Montagne) Kützing 1847HS14
|--Yamadaella caenomyce (Decaisne) Abbott 1970HS14
`--Liagora Lamouroux 1812HL09
|--L. ceranoides Lamouroux 1816HL09
|--L. divaricata Tseng 1941HS14
|--L. kraftiiHSA03
|--L. marginataG20
|--L. mauritianaHSA03
|--L. perennisHSA03
|--L. turneriHSA03
`--L. walkerae Huisman 2002HS14

Dichotomaria marginata (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816 [=Corallina marginata Ellis & Solander 1786, Galaxaura marginata]HL09

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E56] Elliott, G. F. 1956. Galaxaura (calcareous algae) and similar fossil genera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (11): 341–343.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HS02] Harper, J. T., & G. W. Saunders. 2002. A re-classification of the Acrochaetiales based on molecular and morphological data, and establishment of the Colaconematales ord. nov. (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 37: 463–476.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

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