Nemonychidae

Dorsal and lateral views of Notomacer araucariae, from Legalov (2017). Scale bar = 1 mm.

Belongs within: Phytophaga.

The Nemonychidae, pine flower weevils, are a group of weevils with larvae feeding on pollen of conifers. They have a primarily bipolar distribution with few species known from tropical regions (Anderson 2002). Adults are distinguished from other weevils by the combination of a free labrum, visible at the level of the clypeus, together with a pronotum lacking lateral carinae, narrowly separated mid coxae and all free abdominal ventrites. A single apical spur is present on the hind tibia in the subfamily Rhynorhynchinae whereas two spurs are present in Nemonychinae (Anderson 2002).

Characters (from Anderson 2002): Shape elongate, slightly convex; length 3.0–5.5 mm; colour pale brown to black; vestiture of fine short to moderately long appressed or suberect pubescence. Rostrum moderately to very long and mostly narrow. Antennae straight, ending in a weak, loose club of three articles; antennal insertions lateral at middle or near apex of rostrum. Labrum distinct, not fused with clypeus. Mandibles with small but distinct mola. Maxillae with separate galea and lacinia and maxillary palps flexible. Labial palps attached ventrally near base of prementum. Gular sutures well-developed and separate. Proventriculus lacks sclerotised plates. Procoxae contiguous and procoxal cavities narrowly closed posteriorly. Mesocoxal cavities either not closed laterally or narrowly so. Elytra without inner subcostal flange. Hind wing mostly with four anal veins or fewer. Tarsal claws of some cleft. Visible sternites of abdomen free; pygydium concealed by elytra. Tegmen simple or bilobed apically and median lobe with distinct dorsal plate. Larvae when mature about 4.0–4.8 mm in length, of moderate thickness throughout length, strongly “C”-shaped. Body white, covered with mixture of long and short setae. Minute legs present on thorax. Head hypognathous, rounded at sides, pigmented, with few to many setae on frons and epicranium. Frontal sutures complete, reaching articulating membrane of mandible. Clypeus not distinguishable from frons and incompletely separated from labrum. One pair of anterior stemmata. Labrum short, anterior margin rounded, bearing four pairs of setae. Antenna of single membranous article bearing accessory appendage. Mandible with two apical teeth, obtuse protuberance on cutting edge, distinctly produced molar area with flattened grinding surface, and one pair of setae. Hypopharyngeal bracon present. Maxillary palp with three articles, palpiger present or absent. Labial palp of two articles. Premental sclerite present, may be divided medially. Thorax with pronotal sclerite transverse, lightly pigmented or unpigmented, sparsely covered with setae. Legs very small, subconical, of two or three segments, with or without terminal claw. Abdomen with first eight segments with two dorsal folds and bearing annular or bicameral spiracles. Anal opening terminal.

<==Nemonychidae [Eobelidae, Rhinomaceridae, Rhinomacerides]
| i. s.: Brenthorrhinus mirabilisP02
| PagomacerM94
| NannomacerM94
| RhynchitomacerM94
| Eobelus longipesRJ93
| Basilogeus podocarpiLB20
|--Nemonyx [Nemonychinae]MW15
| `--N. lepturoidesMW15
`--RhynorhynchinaeMW15
| i. s.: Rhynchitomacerinus kuscheliMW15
|--RhinorhynchiniZ94
| |--AuletanusZ94
| |--AuletulusZ94
| |--SalacusZ94
| |--*Basiliogeus prasinusM94
| |--*Basiliorhinus araucariaeM94
| |--Rhinorhynchus [=Listrorhinus]Z94
| | `--*R. rufulus [=Rhinomacer rufulus, *Listrorhinus rufulus; incl. Rhinorhynchus zealandicus]Z94
| `--Atopomacer Kuschel 1989A02
| `--A. orites Kuschel 1989A02
`--MecomaceriniB14
|--Brarus mystes Kuschel 1997B14
|--MecomacerB14
|--AraucomacerB14
|--*Aragomacer leaiM94
|--*Eutactobius puellusM94
|--BunyaeusM94
| |--*B. monteithiM94
| `--B. eutactaeM94
`--NotomacerM94
|--*N. araucariaeM94
|--N. australiaeM94
|--N. barbatulusM94
|--N. caledonicusM94
|--N. reginaeM94
|--N. uniformisM94
`--N. zimmermaniM94

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Nemonychidae Bedel 1882. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 692–694. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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