Neobatrachia

Table Mountain ghost frog Heleophryne rosei, copyright Vincent Carruthers.

Belongs within: Anura.
Contains: Ranoidea, Hyloidea, Limnodynastinae, Myobatrachinae.

The Neobatrachia are a clade containing the majority of living frogs, united by features such as the presence of a neopalatine bone in the skull.

Synapomorphies (from Frost et al. 2006): Neopalatine bone present; third distal carpal fused to other carpals; m. sartorius completely separated from m. semitendinosus; accessory head present on m. adductor longus; parahyoid bone absent.

<==Neobatrachia [Hemiphractinae]
|  i. s.: Indobatrachus pusillus (Owen 1847) BB03
|–Heleophrynidae [Heleophryninae] PW11
|    |–Hadromophryne natalensis PW11
|    `–Heleophryne Sclater 1898 FG06
|         |–H. natalensis FG06
|         |–H. purcelli BB03
|         |–H. regis FG06
|         `–H. rosei FG06
`–Phthanobatrachia (see below for synonymy) FG06
|–+–Nasikabatrachus Biju & Bossuyt 2003 FG06 [Nasikabatrachidae PW11]
|  |    `–*N. sahyadrensis Biju & Bossuyt 2003 BB03
|  `–Sooglossidae [Sooglossinae] PW11
|       |–Sooglossus Boylenger 1906 [incl. Nesomantis Boulenger 1909] NW07
|       |    |–*S. sechellensis (Boettger 1896) [=Arthroleptis sechellensis] NW07
|       |    `–S. thomasseti (Boulenger 1909) [=*Nesomantis thomasseti] NW07
|       `–Sechellophryne Nussbaum & Wu 2007 NW07
|            |–*S. gardineri (Boulenger 1911) [=Nectophryne gardineri, Sooglossus gardineri] NW07
|            `–S. pipilodryas (Gerlach & Willi 2002) [=Sooglossus pipilodryas] NW07
`–+–Ranoidea EJK08
`–+–Hyloidea PW11
`–+–Calyptocephallelidae [Calyptocephalellinae, Calyptocephalellini] PW11
|    |–Calyptocephalella Strand 1928 FG06
|    |    `–C. gayi PW11
|    `–Telmatobufo Schmidt 1952 PW11, FG06
|         |–T. bullocki PW11
|         `–T. venustus FG06
`–Myobatrachidae [Australobatrachia, Myobatrachoidea] PW11
|  i. s.: Kankanophryne Heyer & Liem 1976 FKM82
|           `–*K. occidentalis FKM82
|         Glauertia FKM82
|–Limnodynastinae PW11
`–Myobatrachinae PW11

Phthanobatrachia [Athesphatanura, Ceratophrydes, Chthonobatrachia, Cladophrynia, Diphyabatrachia, Hyloides, Leptodactyliformes, Meridianura, Nobleobatrachia, Notogaeanura, Tinctanura] FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB03] Biju, S. D., & F. Bossuyt. 2003. New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles. Nature 425: 711–714.

[EJK08] Evans, S. E., M. E. H. Jones & D. W. Krause. 2008. A giant frog with South American affinities from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (8): 2951–2956.

[FKM82] Farris, J. S., A. G. Kluge & M. F. Mickevich. 1982. Phylogenetic analysis, the monothetic group method, and myobatrachid frogs. Systematic Zoology 31 (3): 317–327.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[NW07] Nussbaum, R. A., & S.-H. Wu. 2007. Morphological assessments and phylogenetic relationships of the Seychellean frogs of the family Sooglossidae (Amphibia: Anura). Zoological Studies 46 (3): 322–335.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

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