Neocribellatae

Lampshade spider Hypochilus thorelli, copyright Marshal Hedin.

Belongs within: Araneida.
Contains: Plectana, Palpimanoidea, Entelegynae.

The Neocribellatae are a clade of spiders in which a sieve-like spinning plate, the cribellum, evolved in front of the spinnerets, though this feature has been secondarily lost in many derived subgroups. Members of this clade have a relatively short life cycle and do not moult subsequent to attaining maturity (Wunderlich 2019). Many members of this clade (most members of the subclade Praeentelegynae) have an entelegyne female reproductive system, with an epigyne bearing separate pairs of ducts for sperm transport during insemination and fertilisation, though it is debated whether such a system has arisen more than once.

<==Neocribellatae [Cleistospermiata]W19
    |  i. s.: Spinipalpus [Pholcochyroceridae]W19
    |           `--S. veta Wunderlich 2015W19
    |--Hypochilidae [Palaearchaeidea, Paleocribellatae]W19
    |    |--Ectatosticta Simon 1892 [Ectatostictidae]JD-S07
    |    |    `--E. davidiJD-S07
    |    `--Hypochilus Marx 1888JD-S07
    |         |--H. coyleiHR01
    |         |--H. gertschiJD-S07
    |         |--H. pocockiJD-S07
    |         |--H. sheariHR01
    |         `--H. thorelli Marx 1888HF08
    `--Praeentelegynae (see below for synonymy)W19
         |  i. s.: Eurocoelotes inermis (Koch 1855)SL14
         |         TelemidaeJD-S07
         |           |--Telema Simon 1882JD-S07
         |           |--Apneumonella Fage 1921JD-S07
         |           |--Cangoderces Harrington 1951JD-S07
         |           |--Jocquella Baert 1980JD-S07
         |           |--Seychellia Saaristo 1978JD-S07
         |           |--Telemofila Wunderlich 1995JD-S07
         |           `--Usofila Keyserling 1891JD-S07
         |         PlectanaD59
         |         Notocentria Thorell 1894T94
         |           `--*N. sexspinosa Thorell 1894T94
         |         Talthybia depressa Thorell 1898GA11
         |--+--+--Hickmania Gertsch 1985JD-S07 [HickmaniinaeWC17]
         |  |  |    `--H. troglodytes [=Theridion troglodytes]FF99
         |  |  `--Archoleptoneta Gertsch 1974JD-S07 [ArcholeptonetinaeWC17]
         |  |       `--A. schusteriR14
         |  `--GradungulidaeWC17
         |       |  i. s.: Kayia Gray 1987JD-S07
         |       |         Spelungula Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |       |           `--*S. cavernicola Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |       |         Pianoa Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |       |           `--*P. isolata Forster in Forster et al. 1987PVD10
         |       |         Progradungula Forster & Gray 1979JD-S07
         |       |           `--P. carraiensisFF99
         |       |--Macrogradungula Gray 1987WC17, JD-S07
         |       |    `--M. moonyaMF01
         |       `--+--Tarlina Gray 1987WC17, JD-S07
         |          |    `--T. woodwardi [=Gradungula woodwardi]FF99
         |          `--Gradungula Forster 1955WC17, PVD10
         |               `--*G. sorenseni Forster 1955PVD10
         `--+--+--LeptonetidaeWC17
            |  |    |--Segrea sardinensis Roewer 1953MG03
            |  |    |--Paraleptoneta fagei Roewer 1953MG03
            |  |    |--Protoleptoneta italica (Simon 1907)A05
            |  |    |--Leptonetella Kratochvíl 1978MG03
            |  |    |    `--L. caucasica Dunin 1990MG03
            |  |    |--Leptoneta Simon 1872MG03
            |  |    |    |--L. comasiJD-S07
            |  |    |    |--L. infuscataJD-S07
            |  |    |    `--L. striataJD-S07
            |  |    `--Sulcia creticaJD-S07
            |  `--Austrochilus Gertsch & Zapfe 1955JD-S07 [AustrochilinaeWC17]
            |       |  i. s.: A. melonJD-S07
            |       |--A. franckeiWC17
            |       `--+--A. forsteriWC17
            |          `--Thaida Karsch 1880WC17, JD-S07
            |               `--T. peculiarisR14
            `--+--PalpimanoideaWC17
               `--+--+--Neoleptoneta rainesiWC17
                  |  `--Calileptoneta helferiWC17
                  `--EntelegynaeWC17

Praeentelegynae [Austrochilidae, Austrochiloidea, Cribellatae, Dictynoidea, Dipneumonomorpha, Euetrioidae, Hickmaniidae, Leptonetoidea, Orbitelae, Orbiculariae, Orbitelariae]W19

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A05] Alberti, G. 2005. Double spermatogenesis in Chelicerata. Journal of Morphology 266 (3): 281–297.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin’s bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: an overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 95–110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HF08] Huber, B. A., & N. Fleckenstein. 2008. Comb-hairs on the fourth tarsi in pholcid spiders. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 232–240.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[MF01] Monteith, G. B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Australian king crickets: distribution, habitats and biology (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 79–94. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[SL14] Samu, F., G. Lengyel, É. Szita, A. Bidló & P. Ódor. 2014. The effect of forest stand characteristics on spider diversity and species composition in deciduous-coniferous mixed forests. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 135–141.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

[WC17] Wheeler, W. C., J. A. Coddington, L. M. Crowley, D. Dimitrov, P. A. Goloboff, C. E. Griswold, G. Hormiga, L. Prendini, M. J. Ramírez, P. Sierwald, L. Almeida-Silva, F. Alvarez-Padilla, M. A. Arnedo, L. R. Benavides Silva, S. P. Benjamin, J. E. Bond, C. J. Grismado, E. Hasan, M. Hedin, M. A. Izquierdo, F. M. Labarque, J. Ledford, L. Lopardo, W. P. Maddison, J. A. Miller, L. N. Piacentini, N. I. Platnick, D. Polotow, D. Silva-Dávila, N. Scharff, T. Szűts, D. Ubick, C. J. Vink, H. M. Wood & J. Zhang. 2017. The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33: 574–616.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

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