Paenecalyptonotus sp., from Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.

Belongs within: Hydryphantidae.
Contains: Anisitsiellidae, Sperchontidae, Limnesiidae, Oxidae, Lebertiidae, Torrenticolidae, HydrachnaGretacarus, Uchidastygacarus, Momoniidae, Arrenuridae, Krendowskiidae, Hungarohydracaridae, Mideopsidae, Athienemanniidae, Chappuisididae, Neoacaridae, Nudomideopsis, Hygrobatoidea.

The Neohydrachnidia are a clade of water mites characterised by the presence of aquatic larvae that seek out hosts without leaving the water after hatching. Larvae of neohydrachnidians have legs with five movable segments, with the basifemur and telofemur being fused together. Most neohydrachnidians except Hydrachna exhibit preparasitic attendance: larvae seek out the pupa of a host insect but wait for emergence of the imago before attaching to the host. Major subgroups include the Lebertioidea, characterised by adults having the genital acetabula borne in the gonopore beneath movable genital flaps. The Arrenuroidea often have the palpi uncate, and genital acetabula lie in the gonopore, on acetabular plates flanking the gonopore, or both (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Neohydrachnidia [Hygrobatini]
    |    |  i. s.: AnisitsiellidaeZF11
    |    |         StygatoniaWL09 [StygotoniidaeZF11]
    |    |           `--S. ambiguaWL09
    |    |         RutripalpusWL09 [RutripalpidaeZF11]
    |    |           |--R. canadensisWL09
    |    |           `--R. limicolaWL09
    |    |         BandakiopsisWL09 [BandakiopsidaeZF11]
    |    |           `--B. fonticolaWL09
    |    |         AcucapitoWL09 [AcucapitidaeG09]
    |    |           `--A. nasoWL09
    |    |--+--SperchontidaeDPD16
    |    |  `--TeutoniidaeDPD16
    |    |       |--Limnolegeria longisetaWL09
    |    |       `--Teutonia Koenike 1889G04
    |    |            |--T. cometesDPD16
    |    |            `--T. lunataWL09
    |    `--+--LimnesiidaeDPD16
    |       `--+--OxidaeDPD16
    |          `--+--LebertiidaeDPD16
    |             `--TorrenticolidaeDPD16
    `--+--Hydrachnidae [Hydrachnidae, Hydrachnoidea]DPD16
       |    |--HydrachnaS-TK22
       |    |--AtaxD01
       |    |    |--A. crassipes (see below for synonymy)B83
       |    |    |--A. figuralisD01
       |    |    |--A. intermediusP-C06
       |    |    `--A. ypsilophoraG64
       |    `--CurvipesD01
       |         |--C. carneusD01
       |         |--C. circularisD01
       |         |--C. conglobatusD01
       |         |--C. fuscatusD01
       |         |--C. longipalpisD01
       |         `--C. neumanniD01
       `--+--Arrenuroidea [Arrhenurini]DPD16
          |    |  i. s.: GretacarusZF11
          |    |         UchidastygacarusZF11
          |    |--MomoniidaeWL09
          |    |--+--ArrenuridaeS-TK22
          |    |  |--KrendowskiidaeWL09
          |    |  |--HungarohydracaridaeWL09
          |    |  `--BogatiidaeWL09
          |    |       |--Bogatia Motas & Tanasachi 1948 [Bogatiinae]S86
          |    |       |    `--B. maxillaris Motas & Tanasachi 1948S86
          |    |       `--Horreolanus Mitchell 1955 [Horreolaniinae]S86
          |    |            `--H. orphanus Mitchell 1955S86
          |    `--+--MideopsidaeWL09
          |       |--AthienemanniidaeWL09
          |       |--ChappuisididaeWL09
          |       |--NeoacaridaeWL09
          |       |--Kantacarus Imamura 1959S86 [KantacaridaeWL09]
          |       |    `--K. matsumotoi Imamura 1959S86
          |       |--Harpagopalpus [Harpagopalpidae]WL09
          |       |    `--H. indicusWL09
          |       |--Amoenacarus [Amoenacaridae]WL09
          |       |    `--A. dixiensisWL09
          |       |--Laversia [Laversiidae]WL09
          |       |    `--L. berulophilaWL09
          |       |--Midea [Mideidae]WL09
          |       |    |--M. expansaWL09
          |       |    `--M. orbiculataWL09
          |       |--AcalyptonotidaeWL09
          |       |    |--Acalyptonotus neoviolaceusWL09
          |       |    `--Paenecalyptonotus fontinalisWL09
          |       |--NudomideopsidaeWL09
          |       |    |--NudomideopsisWL09
          |       |    |--Paramideopsis susanaeWL09
          |       |    `--NeomideopsisWL09
          |       |--Arenohydracarus Cook 1974S86 [ArenohydracaridaeWL09, Arenohydracarinae]
          |       |    |--A. eremitus Cook 1974S86
          |       |    |--A. minimus Cook 1974S86
          |       |    `--A. pseudominimus Orghidan & Gruia 1983S86
          |       `--Nipponacarus Imamura 1957S86 [NipponacaridaeWL09]
          |            |--N. (Nipponacarus)S86
          |            |    |--N. (N.) matsumotoi Imamura 1959S86
          |            |    `--N. (N.) miurai Imamura 1957S86
          |            `--N. (Hexanipponacarus Imamura 1959)S86
          |                 `--N. (H.) japonicus Imamura 1959S86

Atax crassipes [=Hydrachna crassipes, Trombidium crassipes non Menge 1854; incl. Atax albidus, A. truncatellus, A. truncatus]B83

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B83] Berlese, A. 1883. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fascicle 4. Typis Fratelli Salmin: Patavii.

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G64] Garner, R. 1864. On a parasitical Acarus of the Anodon. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 114.

[G09] Gerecke, R. 2009. Revisional studies on the European species of the water mite genus Lebertia Neuman, 1880 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Lebertiidae). Abhandlungen der Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 566: 1–144.

[G04] Goldschmidt, T. 2004. Untersuchungen über Wassermilben der Familie Anisitsiellidae Koenike 1910 aus der Neotropis (Arachnida, Acari, Actinedida, Hydrachnidia). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 113–150.

[P-C06] Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1906. The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Arachnida. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Additional Series 5: 53–65.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[S-TK22] Szudarek-Trepto, N., A. Kaźmierski, A. Skoracka, M. Lewandowski & J. Dabert. 2022. Molecular phylogeny supports the monophyly of the mite supercohort Eupodides (Acariformes: Trombidiformes) and greatly coincides with traditional morphological definition of the taxon. Annales Zoologici 72 (4): 757–786.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

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