Polystoechotes punctatus, photographed by E. S. Ross.

Belongs within: Euneuroptera.
Contains: Mantispoidea, Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae, Myrmeleontiformia.

The Polystoechotidae, giant lacewings, are currently restricted to the New World (with species in North America and Chile), but are known from the Old World in the Mesozoic (Ren et al. 2002).

Neoneuroptera [Hemerobioidea]EWB18
    |  i. s.: SolenoptilonRJ93 [SolenoptilidaeEWB18]
    |           |--S. kochiRJ93
    |           `--S. martynoviRJ93
    |         OsmylitidaeEWB18
    |           |--Idiastogyia fatisca Lin 1986RJ93
    |           `--Osmylites protogaeusRJ93
    |         Lembochrysa minisculaWHW10
    |  `--ChrysopoideaP-FD12
    |       |  i. s.: Hallucinochrysa Pérez-de la Fuente, Delclòs et al. 2012P-FD12
    |       |           `--*H. diogenesi Pérez-de la Fuente, Delclòs et al. 2012P-FD12
    |       |--ChrysopidaeVM20
    |       |--LimaiidaeP-FD12
    |       |--Tachinymphes Ponomarenko 1992RY02 [TachinymphidaeP-FD12]
    |       |--AllopterusRJ93 [AllopteridaeP-FD12]
    |       |    `--A. luianus Zhang 1991RJ93
    |       `--LiassochrysaRJ93 [LiassochrysidaeP-FD12]
    |            `--L. stigmatica Ansorge & Schlüter 1990RJ93
            |--Ithonidae [Ithonoidea, Phytoneuroptera, Polystoechotidae]VM20
            |    |  i. s.: Rapisma [Rapismatidae]GE05
            |    |         AdamsianaGE05
            |    |         Varnia implexaN91, K-P91
            |    |         NarodonaA69
            |    |         ‘Adamsia’ Penny 1996 nec Forbes 1840 nec Dunker 1857A02
            |    |         Kasachstania Panfilov 1980REL02
            |    |         Osmyliodea Panfilov 1980REL02
            |    |         Pterocalla Panfilov 1980REL02
            |    |         Lithosmylidia Riek 1955REL02
            |    |           `--L. lineataRJ93
            |    |         Meilingia Ren, Engel & Lü 2002REL02
            |    |           `--*M. giganteus Ren, Engel & Lü 2002REL02
            |    |         Jurapolystoechotes Ren, Engel & Lü 2002REL02
            |    |           `--*J. melanolomus Ren, Engel & Lü 2002REL02
            |    |         PalaeopsychopsYM12
            |    |--+--IthoneWHW10
            |    |  |    |--I. fulvaEWB18
            |    |  |    `--I. fuscaN91
            |    |  `--MegalithoneWHW10
            |    |      |--M. megacercaN91
            |    |      `--M. tillyardiVM20
            |    `--+--Fontecilla graphicusWHW10
            |       |--Polystoechotes punctatusVM20
            |       `--+--Platystoechotes lineatusWHW10
            |          `--Oliarces claraWHW10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A69] Adams, P. A. 1969. A new genus and species of Osmylidae (Neuroptera), from Chile and Argentina, with a discussion of planipennian genitalic homologies. Postilla 141: 1–11.

[A02] Aspöck, U. 2002. Phylogeny of the Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). Zoologica Scripta 31: 51–55.

[EWB18] Engel, M. S., S. L. Winterton & L. C. V. Breitkreuz. 2018. Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: where have wings of lace taken us? Annual Review of Entomology 63: 531–551.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] New, T. R. 1991. Neuroptera (lacewings). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 525–542. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P-FD12] Pérez-de la Fuente, R., X. Delclòs, E. Peñalver, M. Speranza, J. Wierzchos, C. Ascaso & M. S. Engel. 2012. Early evolution and ecology of camouflage in insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (52): 21414–21419.

[REL02] Ren, D., M. S. Engel & W. Lü. 2002. New giant lacewings from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China (Neuroptera: Polystoechotidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 75 (3): 188–193.

[RY02] Ren D. & Yin J.-C. 2002. A new genus and new species of lacewings in the Jurassic of China (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontoidea). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 269–273.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

[YM12] Yang, Q., V. N. Makarkin, S. L. Winterton, A. V. Khramov & D. Ren. 2012. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera) with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida. PLoS One 7 (9): e44762.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *