Nepoidea

 Lethocerus delpontei, copyright Wolfram Sondermann.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Nepoidea are a group of aquatic bugs in which the fore wing venation is reticulate and the eighth abdominal tergum is modified into a pair of respiratory processes. In members of the family Nepidae, water scorpions, these processes are angular filaments that form a more or less elongate siphon. In the Belostomatidae, the processes are shorter, flat, retractile filaments. Within Nepidae, the members of the subfamily Ranatrinae are more slender than Nepinae (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Nepoidea
|--NepidaeGE05
| | i. s.: CurictaIm92
| |--NepinaeCGW91
| | |--Laccotrephes tristisCGW91
| | `--Nepa Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--N. atra Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--N. cimicoides Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--N. cinerea Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--N. fusca Linnaeus 1758L58
| | `--N. rubra Linnaeus 1758L58
| `--RanatrinaeCGW91
| |--Austronepa angustaCGW91, WEE74
| |--GoondnomdanepaCGW91
| |--CercotmetusCGW91
| `--RanatraTW05
| |--R. australiensisG75
| |--R. diminutaPH10
| |--R. disparCGW91
| |--R. linearis (Linnaeus 1758)CS77, L58 [=Nepa linearisL49]
| `--R. quadridentataRD77
`--BelostomatidaeGE05
| i. s.: Mesobelostomum deperditumS02
| Odrowasicoris polonicusS02
| Iberonepa romeraliGE05, S02
| LethonectesGE05
| TarsabedusGE05
| NettelstedtiaGE05
| MesonepaGE05
| ScarabeidesGE05
| StygeonepaGE05
| LethopterusGE05
| Hydrocyrius columbiae Spinola 1850 [incl. Belostoma capitatum Guerin-Meneville 1856]M62
| Sphaerodema equesG75
| Zaitha flumineumRD77
|--BelostomatinaeCGW91
| |--BelostomaG20
| | |--B. grande (Linnaeus 1758)L49, L58 [=Nepa grandisL49, Belostomum grandeL49]
| | `--B. testaceopallidumG20
| `--DiplonychusCGW91
| |--D. equesCGW91
| `--D. rusticus [=Sphaerodema rusticum]CGW91
`--LethocerusM62 [LethocerinaeCGW91]
|--L. annulipes (Herrich-Schäffer 1848) (see below for synonymy)M62
|--L. colossicusM62
|--L. delponteiM62
|--L. deyrollei (Vuillefroy 1864)Iw92
|--L. distinctifemurCGW91
|--‘Belostoma’ distinctum Dufour 1863M62
|--L. grandisRD77
|--L. (Benacus) griseus (Say 1832) [incl. B. angustatum Guerin-Meneville 1856]M62
|--L. indicusWEE70
|--L. insulanusCGW91
|--‘Belostoma’ litigiosum Dufour 1863M62
|--L. medius (Guerin-Meneville 1856) [=Belostoma medium; incl. B. curtum Guerin-Meneville 1856]M62
|--‘Belostoma’ obscurum Dufour 1863M62
`--L. turgaicusS02

Lethocerus annulipes (Herrich-Schäffer 1848) [=Belostoma annulipes; incl. B. mayri Montandon 1896, B. ruficeps Dufour 1863, B. signoreti Dufour 1863]M62

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M62] Menke, A. S. 1962. Notes on species of Lethocerus Mayr and Hydrocyrius Spinola described by Guerin-Meneville, L. Dufour, A. L. Montandon, and G. A. W. Herrich-Schäffer (Belostomatidae; Hemiptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 61–66.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

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