Nereis pelagica, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Phyllodocida.

The Nereididae, ragworms, are a group of often large polychaete worms with well-developed jaws. They are mostly marine though some will occasionally enter fresh water or even emerge onto land.

Characters (from Howell 1962): Body long, many-segmented; two large jaws and often paragnaths in eight groups; first two pairs of parapodia simple, others double; dorsal and ventral cirri present; bristles with sickle-shaped ends; two anal cirri.

    |--+--Ceratocephale loveni Malmgren 1867RP07
    |  `--CeratonereisRP07
    |       |--C. anchylochaeta (Horst 1924) [=Nereis (Lycoris) anchylochaeta; incl. C. longicauda Treadwell 1943]H56
    |       |--C. costae (Grube 1840) [=Nereis (Ceratonereis) costae]ECE00
    |       |--C. hircinicola (Eisig 1870)ECE00 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--C. longiceratophora Hartmann-Schröder 1985RP07
    |       |--C. mirabilis Kinberg 1866 [incl. C. singularis Treadwell 1929, Nereis singularis Treadwell 1943]H56
    |       `--C. paucidentata (Moore 1903) [incl. Nereis (Ceratonereis) alaskensis Treadwell 1921]H56
    `--Nereis Linnaeus 1758RP07, H62
         |--*N. noctiluca Linnaeus 1758H62
         |--N. abnormis Horst 1924P56
         |--N. allenae Pettibone 1956P56
         |--N. amoyensis Treadwell 1936 [=N. (Neanthes) amoyensis]H56
         |--N. arroyensis Treadwell 1901H56
         |--N. articulata Ehlers 1887P56
         |--N. caerulea Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--N. (Leptonereis) distorta Treadwell 1936H56
         |--N. egregicirrata Treadwell 1924 [=N. (Leptonereis) egregicirrata]P56
         |--N. ehlersiana Grube 1878ECE00
         |--N. falsa Quatrefages 1865ECE00
         |--N. fucataBBB-S95
         |--N. gigantea Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--N. grayi Pettibone 1956P56
         |--N. heterocirrata Treadwell 1931H56
         |--N. lacustris Linnaeus 1758L58
         |--N. limbataWPB98
         |--N. longiorLS10
         |--N. occidentalis Hartman 1945 [=N. pelagica occidentalis; incl. Neanthes oligohalina Rioja 1946]P56
         |--N. pelagica Linnaeus 1758ECE00 (see below for synonymy)
         |--N. rava Ehlers 1868ECE00
         |--N. riisei Grube 1856 (see below for synonymy)H56
         |--N. vexillosa Grube 1851SS07
         |--N. virens (Sars 1835)SS07
         `--N. zonata Malmgren 1867ECE00
Nereididae incertae sedis:
  Namanereis Chamberlin 1919 [Namanereidinae]H-S86
    |--N. beroni Hartmann-Schröder & Marinov 1977H-S86
    |--N. hummelincki (Augener 1933)H-S86
    `--N. pontica (Bobretzky 1872)H-S86
    |--P. australisHS01
    |--P. bicanaliculata (Baird 1863) [=Nereis bicanaliculata; incl. N. notomacula Treadwell 1914]H56
    |--P. coccinea (Delle Chiaje 1841)ECE00
    |--P. dumerilii (Audouin & Edwards 1833)ECE00 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. megalopsMH96
    `--P. polyscalma Chamberlin 1919 [incl. Nereis (Platynereis) integer Treadwell 1920]H56
  Paleonereites Stauffer 1933H62
    `--*P. cervicornis Stauffer 1933H62
  Paranereites Eisenack 1939H62
    `--*P. balticus Eisenack 1939H62
  Pronereites Stauffer 1933H62
    `--*P. primus Stauffer 1933H62
  Triadonereis Mayer 1954H62
    `--*T. eckerti Mayer 1954H62
  Ungulites Stauffer 1933H62
    |--*U. bicuspidatus Stauffer 1933H62
    `--U. tridentatus Stauffer 1933W93
  Micronereis variegata Claparède 1863ECE00
  Lycastopsis pontica (Bobretzky 1872)ECE00
  Websterinereis glauca (Claparède 1870) [=Laeonereis glauca, Leptonereis glauca]ECE00
  Hediste diversicolor (Müller 1776) [=Nereis diversicolor]ECE00
  Neanthes Kinberg 1865ECE00, Z01
    |--N. arenaceodentataCCG01
    |--N. caudata (Delle Chiaje 1888) [=Nereis caudata]ECE00
    |--N. diversicolorZHT01
    |--N. irrorata (Malmgren 1867) [=Nereis irrorata]ECE00
    |--N. succinea (Frey & Leuckart 1847)ECE00 (see below for synonymy)
    `--N. virensWPB98
    |--P. aibuhitensis Grube 1878 (see below for synonymy)H56
    |--P. brevicirrata (Treadwell 1920) [=Nereis brevicirrata]H56
    |--P. camiguinoidesHS01
    |--P. cultrifera (Grube 1840)ECE00
    |--P. helleri (Grube 1878) [=Nereis (Perinereis) helleri; incl. Neanthes obscura Treadwell 1928]H56
    |--P. marioniiBBB-S95
    |--P. monterea (Chamberlin 1918) [=Nereis (Neanthes) monterea; incl. N. spinifera Treadwell 1929]H56
    |--P. nuntia [incl. P. nuntia f. brevicirrus]HS01
    `--P. oliveiraeBBB-S95
  Eunereis longissima (Johnston 1840)ECE00 [=Nereis (Eunereis) longissimaP56]
    |--P. anomala Gravier 1902ECE00
    |--P. atopodon Chamberlin 1919H56
    |--P. palpata (Treadwell 1923) [=Nereis (Neanthes) palpata; incl. N. disparsetosa Treadwell 1932]H56
    `--P. variegata (Grube 1856) [=Nereilepas variegata; incl. Perinereis diversidentata Treadwell 1943]H56
  Ctenoscolex Ehlers 1869H62
    `--*C. procerus Ehlers 1869H62
  Dinoscolites Stauffer 1933H62
    `--*D. mirabilis Stauffer 1933H62
  Nawnites Roy 1929H62
    `--*N. gilboensis Roy 1929H62
    |--N. maculata [=Leptonereis maculata]H56
    `--N. mexicana (Treadwell 1942) [=Leptonereis mexicana]H56
    |--L. acutaMGV06
    `--L. culveri (Webster 1879) (see below for synonymy)H56
  Lycastis kartaboensis (Treadwell 1926) [=Namonereis kartaboensis]H56

Ceratonereis hircinicola (Eisig 1870)ECE00 [=Nereis (Ceratonereis) hircinicolaECE00; incl. N. (C.) bartletti Treadwell 1937H56]

Laeonereis culveri (Webster 1879) [incl. Nereis (Leptonereis) acuta Treadwell 1923, Leptonereis nota Treadwell 1941]H56

Neanthes succinea (Frey & Leuckart 1847)ECE00 [=Alitta succineaHJ08, Nereis succineaECE00; incl. Nereis (Neanthes) australis Treadwell 1923H56, Neanthes oxypoda Marenzeller 1879HJ08, Nereis oxypodaHJ08, Nereis singularis Wesenberg-Lund 1949 non Treadwell 1943H56]

Nereis pelagica Linnaeus 1758RP07 [incl. N. brevicirrata Treadwell 1929 non Treadwell 1920H56, N. largoensis Treadwell 1931P56, N. pelagica largoensisP56]

Nereis riisei Grube 1856 [incl. N. ambiguus Treadwell 1937, N. decora Treadwell 1932, N. (Neanthes) paucidentata Treadwell 1939, N. (N.) varia Treadwell 1941]H56

Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube 1878 [incl. Nereis (Neanthes) linea Treadwell 1936, N. (N.) orientalis Treadwell 1936]H56

Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin & Edwards 1833)ECE00 [=Nereis dumeriliiH56; incl. Eunereis africana Treadwell 1943H56, Uncinereis lutea Treadwell 1928H56, U. trimaculosa Treadwell 1940H56]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[CCG01] Canivet, V., P. Chambon & J. Gibert. 2001. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of arsenic and chromium in epigean and hypogean freshwater macroinvertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 40: 345–354.

[ECE00] Ergen, Z., M. E. Çinar & G. Ergen. 2000. On the Nereididae (Polychaeta: Annelida) fauna of the Bay of İzmir. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 139–158.

[H56] Hartman, O. 1956. Polychaetous annelids erected by Treadwell, 1891 to 1948, together with a brief chronology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 109 (2): 239–310.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[LS10] Lei, Y., R. Sun, Z. Zhao & W. Liu. 2010. Diversity and distribution of polychaetes in the Chinese seas and comparison of the Yellow Sea faunal characters to the other sea areas. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 44. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MGV06] Mai, A. C. G., A. M. Garcia & J. P. Vieira. 2006. Ecologia alimentar do barrigudinho Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 3–18.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[P56] Pettibone, M. H. 1956. Some polychaete worms of the families Hesionidae, Syllidae, and Nereidae from the east coast of North America. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (9): 281–294.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[W93] Wills, M. A. 1993. Annelida. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 271–278. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WPB98] Winnepenninckx, B. M. H., Y. V. de Peer & T. Backeljau. 1998. Metazoan relationships on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences: a few years later… American Zoologist 38: 888–906.

[Z01] Zompro, O. 2001. A review of Eurycanthinae: Eurycanthini, with a key to genera, notes on the subfamily and designation of type species. Phasmid Studies 10 (1): 19–23.

[ZHT01] Zrzavý, J., V. Hypša & D. F. Tietz. 2001. Myzostomida are not annelids: molecular and morphological support for a clade of animals with anterior sperm flagella. Cladistics 17: 170–198.

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