Nitidulidae

Epuraea luteola, copyright Udo Schmidt.

Belongs within: Cucujoidea.
Contains: Meligethes, Kateretidae, Nitidulinae, Cillaeinae, Carpophilus.

The Nitidulidae are a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of small beetles, many of which feed on fungi but which may also feed on live or decaying vegetation. They may be distinguished by the combination of a three-segmented antennal club, five-segmented tarsi with dilated tarsomeres and a small fourth segment, transverse procoxal cavities and grooved metacoxae (Habeck 2002).

Nitidulids are divided between several subfamilies, of which the Cryptarchinae are distinguished by fusion of the labrum and frons with the clypeus, with the junction being marked by a more or less distinct suture.  Members of the Carpophilinae have the elytra apically truncate and more or less shortened, often exposing one or two tergites preceding the elytra (Habeck 2002).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Usually oblong to ovate, less commonly elongate and parallel-sided, strongly convex to flattened, usually brown or black, occasionally bicoloured, glabrous or pubescent. Antenna 11-segmented, with three-segmented club, club almost always distinct; head usually abruptly constricted at base of clypeus; frontoclypeal suture almost always absent; labrum often emarginate or bilobed (sometimes concealed); maxilla almost always without galea, palp not expanded apically; fore coxae transverse, trochantins exposed, fore coxal cavities externally open or closed, internally closed; mid coxal cavities contiguous or narrowly separated, laterally open; hind coxae well separated; tibiae often expanded and serrate or spinose; tarsi pentamerous or tetramerous, first four tarsal segments often with expanded setose lobes; elytra complete or truncate, exposing one to several abdominal tergites; abdomen with five or six ventrites, none connate. Larvae oblong to elongate and subcylindrical to flattened, dorsal surfaces often granulate or tuberculate, urogomphi (if present) often accompanied by second pair of projections (pregomphi); mandibles usually bearing complex prostheca with fringes of comb-hairs; spiracles often located at ends of tubular processes.

<==Nitidulidae
    |--+--KateretidaeMW15
    |  `--Cryptarchinae [Ipinae, Pityophagini]H02
    |       |--Lioschema xacarilla (Thomson 1856)B14
    |       |--ParomiaB14
    |       |--Pityophagus Shuckard 1839H02
    |       |--Cryptarcha Shuckard 1839 (see below for synonymy)H02
    |       |    |--C. depressa Grouv. 1893M96
    |       |    `--C. nitida Reit. 1877M96
    |       `--Glischrochilus Reitter 1873MW15, H02 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--G. fasciatusRS72
    |            |--‘Librodor’ forcipatus Fairmaire 1889F89
    |            |--‘Librodor’ japonicusF89
    |            |--G. obtusus (Say 1835)F91
    |            `--G. quadrisignatusRS72
    `--+--+--NitidulinaeMW15
       |  `--CillaeinaeMW15
       `--+--Megauchenia [Prometopinae]RS15
          `--CarpophilinaeH02
               |--CarpophilusMW15
               |--Amphicrossus Erichson 1843 (see below for synonymy)H02
               |--Urophorus Murray 1864 [incl. Anophorus Kerijtshuk 1990]H02
               |    `--U. humeralis (Fabricius 1798)H02
               |--Aphenolia Reitter 1884H02
               |    `--A. monogama Crotch 1874H02
               `--Epuraea Erichson 1843 (see below for synonymy)H02
                    |--E. depressaH02
                    |--E. floreaC01
                    |--E. imperialis Reitter 1877E02
                    |--E. integraH02
                    |--E. luteola Er. 1843FS90 [=Haptoncus (Epuraea) luteolusRS72]
                    |--E. nigrita Lucas 1846E12
                    `--‘Haptoncus’ pauperculus Reitt. 1873FS90
Nitidulidae incertae sedis:
  NitidulinaGE05
  PriaAY04
  EupetinusO94
  NesopeplusO94
  NesopetinusO94
  Platamartus jakowlewiC01
  Cychramptodes murrayiLB91
  IdaethinaLB91
    |--I. cincta Blackb. 1891M96
    `--I. pilistriataLB91
  NotobrachypterusLB91
    |--N. australis Blackb. 1892M96
    |--N. bifoveatus Blackb. 1892M96
    |--N. creber Blackb. 1892M96
    |--N. lilliputanus Blackb. 1892M96
    `--N. nitidiusculus Blackb. 1892M96
  ThalycrodesLB91
    |--T. australe Blackb. 1891M96
    |--T. cylindricum Blackb. 1891M96
    `--T. pulchrum Blackb. 1891M96
  LasiodactylusLB91
    |--L. calvus Oll. 1887M96
    `--L. marginatus [incl. L. marginatus var. obscurus Blackb. 1891]M96
  PlatychoropsisLB91
  TestudoreaLB91
  MeligethesLB91
  ‘Pterohelaeus’ nitiduloides Carter 1908MB08
  Ithyphenes cucujiformisM86
  Circopes pilistriatus [=Pocadius pilistriatus]M96
  Sinonitidulina luanpingensisRJ93
  Omositoidea giganteaP92
  MystropsG72
    |--M. bondari [incl. M. palmarum]G72
    |--M. costaricensis Gillogly 1972G72
    |--M. discoideaG72
    |--M. fryiG72
    `--M. heteroceraG72
  MacruraM96
    |--M. baileyi Blackb. 1891M96
    |--M. deceptor Blackb. 1891M96
    `--M. luridipennis [=Carpophilus luridipennis; incl. C. excellens]M96
  Aethinodes marmoratum Blackb. 1891M96
  HaptoncuraM96
    |--H. lindensis Blackb. 1891M96
    |--H. meyricki Blackb. 1891M96
    |--H. uniformis Blackb. 1891M96
    `--H. victoriensis Blackb. 1891M96
  Paralindria Olliff 1883FS90
    `--P. bipartita Oll. 1883FS90
  CalonecrinaeH02

Amphicrossus Erichson 1843 [incl. Lobostoma Fairmaire 1892 nec Gundlach 1840 nec Cossmann 1885, Rhacostoma Berg 1898]H02

Cryptarcha Shuckard 1839 [incl. Arhina Murray 1867, Cryptarchina Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1966, Cryptarchula Ganglbauer 1899, Cryptarchus Heer 1841, Lepiarcha Sharp 1891]H02

Epuraea Erichson 1843 [incl. Africaraea Kirejtshuk 1989, Apria Grouvelle 1919, Dadopora Thomson 1874, Epuraeanella Crotch 1874, Haptoncus Murray 1864, Marinexa Kirejtshuk 1989, Micruria Reitter 1874, Micrurula Reitter 1874, Omosiphora Reitter 1875, Polinexa Kirejtshuk 1989; Epuraeinae]H02

Glischrochilus Reitter 1873MW15, H02 [incl. Cephalips Arrow 1931H02, Cryptarchips Reitter 1911H02, Gymnoparomius Kirejtshuk 1987H02, Ips Fabricius 1775 non De Geer 1775H02, Librodor Reitter 1884H02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69–77.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[F91] Fashing, N. J. 1991. Deutonymphal dimorphism in the genus Hericia (Astigmata: Algophagidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 287–291. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G72] Gillogly, L. R. 1972. A new species of Mystrops from Costa Rica (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 116–120.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H02] Habeck, D. H. 2002. Nitidulidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 311–315. CRC Press.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera”. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[M96] Masters, G. 1896. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, part II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, Paussidae, Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Parnidae, Heteroceridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (Suppl.): 695–754.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RS72] Rathore, Y. S., & C. S. Sengar. 1972. New records of nitidulid and rhizophagid beetles on maize cobs in the U.P. Tarai. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 208–209.

[RS15] Robertson, J. A., A. Ślipiński, M. Moulton, F. W. Shockley, A. Giorgi, N. P. Lord, D. D. McKenna, W. Tomaszewska, J. Forrester, K. B. Miller, M. F. Whiting & J. V. McHugh. 2015. Phylogeny and classification of Cucujoidea and the recognition of a new superfamily Coccinelloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia). Systematic Entomology 40: 745–778.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

 

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