Rhodococcus fascians, copyright Riraq25.

Belongs within: Corynebacteriales.
Contains: Nocardia.

The Nocardiaceae are aerobic or facultatively aerobic bacteria that may form an extensively branched mycelium (Nouioui et al. 2018).

Characters (from Nouioui et al. 2018): Strictly aerobic or facultatively aerobic, Gram-stain positive to Gram-stain variable, non-motile, catalase-positive, may form extensively branched substrate mycelium that fragments into coccoid to rod-shaped elements, others coccoid or rod-shaped or show a rod-coccus, rod-coccus-mycelium growth cycle. Strains typically acid-alcohol or partially acid-alcohol fast at some stage of growth cycle. Chemo-organotrophic with oxidative metabolism. Peptidoglycan of A1α type. Muramic acid residues of peptidoglycan N-glycolated. Predominant isoprenologues MK-8(H2) or MK-9(H2) or MK-8(H4); major polar lipids DPG PE, PI and PIMs, fatty acids mainly straight-chain saturated, unsaturated and 10-methyloctadecanoic (tuberculostearic) acids. Mycolic acids with between 34 and 64 carbon atoms; fatty-acid esters released on pyrolysis MS of mycolic acid esters with 12–18 carbon atoms. G+C content about 60–75%.

    |  i. s.: Millisia brevisNC18
    |--+--*Smaragdicoccus niigatensisNC18
    |  `--+--NocardiaNC18
    |     `--+--*Skermania piniformis (Blackall et al. 1989) Chun et al. 1997NC18
    |        `--Aldersonia Nouioui, Carro et al. 2018NC18
    |             `--*A. kunmingensis (Wang et al.) Nouioui, Carro et al. 2018 (see below for synonymy)NC18
    `--+--+--‘Tomitella’ caverneaNC18
       |  `--HoyosellaNC18
       |       |--H. rhizosphaeraeNC18
       |       `--+--H. altamirensisNC18
       |          `--H. subflavaNC18
       `--+--*Tomitella biformata Katayama et al. 2010NC18
          `--Rhodococcus Zopf 1891NC18, KC01
               |--+--+--R. trifoliiNC18
               |  |  `--+--R. corynebacterioides (Serrano et al. 1972) Yassin & Schaal 2005NC18
               |  |     `--R. kroppenstedtiiNC18
               |  `--+--R. fascians (Tilford 1936) Goodfellow 1984NC18 [=Corynebacterium fasciansK92]
               |     `--+--R. luteusNC18
               |        `--+--+--R. cerastiNC18
               |           |  `--R. cercidiphylliNC18
               |           `--+--R. yunnanensisNC18
               |              `--+--R. kyotonensisNC18
               |                 `--R. sovatensisNC18
               `--+--+--+--R. aetherivoransNC18
                  |  |  `--R. ruber (Kruse 1896) Goodfellow & Alderson 1977NC18
                  |  `--+--+--R. phenolicus Rehfuss & Urban 2006NC18
                  |     |  `--R. zopfii Stoecker et al. 1994NC18
                  |     `--+--R. coprophilus Rowbotham & Cross 1979NC18
                  |        `--+--R. artemisiaeNC18
                  |           `--+--R. gordoniae Jones et al. 2004NC18
                  |              `--+--R. pyridinivorans Yoon et al. 2000NC18
                  |                 `--+--*R. rhodochrous (Zopf 1891) Tsukamura 1974NC18
                  |                    |--R. roseusNC18
                  |                    `--+--R. biphenylivoransNC18
                  |                       `--R. lactisNC18
                  `--+--+--+--R. triatomae Yassin 2005NC18
                     |  |  `--+--R. aerolatusNC18
                     |  |     `--R. rhodnii Goodfellow & Alderson 1979NC18
                     |  `--+--R. marinonascensNC18
                     |     `--+--R. koreensis Yoon et al. 2000NC18
                     |        `--+--R. jostiiNC18
                     |           `--+--R. percolatusNC18
                     |              `--+--R. nanhaiensisNC18
                     |                 `--+--R. wratislaviensis (Goodfellow et al. 1995) Goodfellow et al. 2002NC18
                     |                    `--+--R. imtechensis Ghosh et al. 2006NC18
                     |                       `--R. opacusNC18
                     `--+--+--R. globerulus Goodfellow et al. 1985 [=Nocardia globerula]NC18
                        |  `--+--R. baikonurensisNC18
                        |     |--‘Nocardia’ calcareaNC18
                        |     |--R. jialingiaeNC18
                        |     |--R. qingshengii Xu et al. 2007 [incl. R. enclensis Dastager et al. 2014]NC18
                        |     `--+--‘Nocardia’ coeliacaNC18
                        |        `--R. erythropolis (Gray & Thornton 1928) Goodfellow & Alderson 1979NC18
                        `--+--+--R. maanshanensis Zhang et al. 2002NC18
                           |  `--R. tukisamuensis Matsuyama et al. 2003NC18
                           `--+--R. agglutinansNC18
                              |--+--R. humicolaNC18
                              |  `--+--R. canchipurensisNC18
                              |     `--R. pedocolaNC18
                              `--+--R. antrifimiNC18
                                 `--+--R. defluvii Kämpfer et al. 2014NC18
                                    `--+--R. soliNC18
                                       `--+--R. equi (Magnusson 1923) Goodfellow & Alderson 1977NC18 (see below for synonymy)
                                          `--‘Nocardia’ restrictaNC18

*Aldersonia kunmingensis (Wang et al.) Nouioui, Carro et al. 2018 [=Rhodococcus kunmingensis Wang et al. 2008]NC18

Rhodococcus equi (Magnusson 1923) Goodfellow & Alderson 1977NC18 [=Prescottella equiBV16; incl. R. hoagii (Morse 1912) Kämpfer et al. 2014NC18]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BV16] Barka, E. A., P. Vatsa, L. Sanchez, N. Gaveau-Vaillant, C. Jacquard, J. P. Meier-Kolthoff, H.-P. Klenk, C. Clément, Y. Ouhdouch & G. P. van Wezel. 2016. Taxonomy, physiology, and natural products of Actinobacteria. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 80 (1): 1–43.

[K92] Kado, C. I. 1992. Plant pathogenic bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 659–674. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[NC18] Nouioui, I., L. Carro, M. García-López, J. P. Meier-Kolthoff, T. Woyke, N. Kyrpides, C., R. Pukall, H.-P. Klenk, M. Goodfellow & M. Göker. 2018. Genome-based taxonomic classification of the phylum Actinobacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology 9: 2007.

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