Noctuinae

Northern armyworm Mythimna separata, copyright Shipher Wu.

Belongs within: Noctuidae.
Contains: Axyliina, Noctua, Hadenini, Dypterygiini, Phlogophorini, Orthosiini, Eriopygini, Caradrinini, Apameini, Xylenini, Spodoptera, Sesamiina, Agrotini, Leucania.

The Noctuinae, cutworms, are a clade of moths in which males have the clasper located in the middle of the valve, and larvae have a dorsally-grooved spinneret. Many authors have divided it between the subfamilies Noctuinae, Hadeninae and Xyleninae but these subgroups are not reciprocally monophyletic (Lafontaine & Schmidt 2013). Many noctuines are significant agricultural pests.

Members include the Glottulini, a small group of colourful moths found in the Malesian region whose larvae feed on bulbs of Amaryllidaceae. The Leucaniini are distinguished by possession of a heavily sclerotised, laterally compressed and blade-like ovipositor, and have fine longitudinal streaking on the fore wings (Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005).

Noctuinae [Agrotinae, Hadeninae, Xylenidae, Xyleninae]LS13
|--+--CaradrininiZK11
| `--Glottulini [Glottulidae, Glottulinae]ZK11
| |--Chasmina cygnusWM66
| |--Diaphone capillamentumZK11
| |--Glottula Guenée 1837FL05
| `--Xanthopastis Hübner 1821 [Xanthopastinae]FL05
`--+--+--ApameiniZK11
| `--XyleniniZK11
`--+--Actinotiini [Actinotiina]ZK11
| |--ChloanthaFL05
| |--Nedra ramulosaFL05, T69
| |--AlastriaFL05
| `--Actinotia Hübner 1821FL05
| `--A. polyodon (Clerck 1759)JP05
`--+--SpodopteraKP19
`--+--+--SesamiinaKP19
| `--AgrotiniKP19
`--Leucaniini [Leucanidi, Mythimnini]FL05
|--LeucaniaFL05
`--Mythimna Ochsenheimer 1816KP19, FL05
|--M. conigeraG84
|--M. convectaNC91
|--M. impura [=Leucania impura]V09
|--M. (Hypopteridia) reversaFL05
|--M. separataG84
|--M. sequax [=Pseudaletia sequax]PP72
`--M. turcaG84

Noctuinae incertae sedis:
NoctuiniFL05
|--AxyliinaFL05
`--NoctuinaFL05
| i. s.: ‘Panagra’ extentataM90
| ‘Panagra’ inostentataM90
|--NoctuaZK11
|--Anaplectoides McDunnough 1929 [Anaplectoidina]FL05
|--Archanarta Barnes & Benjamin 1929 [Archanartina]FL05
|--Cerastis Ochsenheimer 1816 [Cerastina]FL05
|--Chersotis Boisduval 1840 [Chersotina]FL05
|--Coenophila Stephens 1850 [Coenophilina]FL05
|--Diarsia Hübner 1821 [Diarsiina]FL05
|--Eugnorisma Boursin 1946 [Eugnorismina]FL05
|--Eugraphe Hübner 1821 [Eugraphina]FL05
|--Netrocerocora Bartel 1902 [Netrocerocorina]FL05
|--Opigena Boisduval 1840 [Opigenina]FL05
|--Standfussiana Boursin 1946 [Standfussianina]FL05
|--Eurois Hübner 1821 [Euroina]FL05
| `--E. occultaT69
|--Naenia Stephens 1827FL05
| `--N. typicaF92
|--Rhyacia Hübner 1821 [Rhyaciina]FL05
| `--R. lucipeta (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775)JP05
|--Xestia Hübner 1818 [Xestiina]FL05
| `--X. c-nigrumV09
`--Lycophotia Hübner 1821 [Lycophotiina]FL05
|--L. ecvinaceaFL05
`--L. oceanicaPP72
Homoptera [Homopteridae]H01
|--H. infligensWM66
`--H. lunataH01
Teratocera ericataH01
Parachabora triangulifera Hampson 1901H01
Lussa nigroguttata Grote 1883 [incl. Stictoptera tumidicosta Hmpsn. 1898]H01
Atethmia subustaH01
Metopiora sanguinata (Lucas 1892)M99
Dasygaster padockinaNC91
TiracolaNC91
|--T. plagiataNC91
`--T. tabwemasana Holloway 1979Z21
HadeniniFL05
PersectaniaNC91
|--P. atristrigaM83
|--P. aversaM83
|--P. ewingiiNC91
`--P. steropastisL27
PseudaletiaC70
|--P. adultera [=Cirphis adultera]S72
|--P. convectaC70
|--P. separataH74
`--P. unipunctataVD-VW14
Pseudeustrotiini [Pseudeustrotiinae]LS13
|--AnterastriaFL05
`--PseudeustrotiaFL05
|--P. candidulaFL05
`--P. carneolaFL05
PhosphiliniLS13
|--Apsaphida eremnaFL05
|--CropiaFL05
|--HeterochromaFL05
|--Paratrachia viridescensFL05
|--SpeocropiaFL05
|--PhuphenaFL05
|--AcherdoaFL05
`--Phosphila Hübner 1818FL05
`--P. turbulentaS96
Elaphriini [Elaphriinae]LS13
|--Galgula Guenée 1852 [Galgulina]FL05
|--BryolymniaFL05
|--GonodesFL05
|--HampsonodesFL05
`--Elaphria Hübner 1818FL05
|--E. dubiosa [=Rivula dubiosa]PP72
`--E. venustula (Hübner 1790)JP05
DypterygiiniLS13
BalsiniFL05
|--Balsa Walker 1860FL05
`--Nolaphana Grote 1873 [Nolaphaninae]FL05
Cosmiini [Cosmidae]FL05
|--EnargiaFL05
|--DicyclaFL05
|--ZothecaFL05
|--Cosmia Ochsenheimer 1816FL05
| `--C. epipaschiaFL05
`--Ipimorpha Hübner 1821 [Ipimorphini]FL05
|--I. pleonectusaT69
`--I. subtusa (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775)JP05
PhlogophoriniFL05
EpiseminiFL05
|--UlochlaenaFL05
|--Cleoceris Boisduval 1836 [Cleocerini]FL05
`--Episema Ochsenheimer 1816 [Episemides]FL05
|--E. hispida [incl. Noctua hirta]L49
`--E. orana Lucas 1849E12
OrthosiiniFL05
Tholerini [Tholerina]FL05
|--NephelodesFL05
|--Cerapteryx graminisFL05, RD77
`--Tholera Hübner 1821FL05
`--T. polygonalisF92
EriopyginiFL05
CopitarsiaFL05
EpiglaeaFL05
TrichocleaFL05
ProtorthodesFL05
EscariaFL05
AniclaFL05
|--A. lubricansFL05
`--A. sullivaniFL05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FL05] Fibiger, M., & J. D. Lafontaine. 2005. A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Esperiana 11: 7–92.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[LS13] Lafontaine, J. D., & B. C. Schmidt. 2013. Comments on differences in classification of the superfamily Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) between Eurasia and North America. ZooKeys 264: 209–217.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M90] Meyrick, E. 1890. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (4): 1117–1216.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[S72] Southcott, R. V. 1972. Revision of the larvae of the tribe Callidosomatini (Acarina: Erythraeidae) with observations on post-larval instars. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 13: 1–84.

[T69] Treat, A. E. 1969. The genus Dicrocheles: three new species and a reappraisal. Acarologia 11 (4): 630–656.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VD-VW14] Vossbrinck, C. R., B. A. Debrunner-Vossbrinck & L. M. Weiss. 2014. Phylogeny of the Microsporidia. In: L. M. Weiss, & J. J. Becnel (eds) Microsporidia: Pathogens of Opportunity pp. 203–220. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

[Z21] Zilli, A. 2021. Tabwecala robinsoni gen. nov., sp. nov., from Vanuatu and its systematic postion in the ‘Ophiusini-Poaphilini’ clade (Lepidoptera, Erebidae). Nota Lepidopterologica 44: 193–211.

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