Noctuoidea

Josia gigantea, copyright Gail Hampshire.

Belongs within: Macroheterocera.
Contains: Euteliidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae, Nolinae, Chloephorinae, Pygaerinae, Thaumetopoeinae, Heterocampinae, Notodontinae.

The Noctuoidea are a diverse group of moths characterised by the presence of metathoracic tympanal organs, usually with a large counter-tympanal cavity with a projecting hood at the base of the abdomen. The tympanum is directed ventrally in members of the Notodontidae and Oenosandridae but obliquely posteriorly in other families (Nielsen & Common 1991).

The classification of the Noctuoidea has historically been chaotic but six well-supported clades were regarded as warranting family status by Zahiri et al. (2011). The basal families Notodontidae and Oenosandridae retain a trifid fore wing venation (with M2 arising about midway between M1 and M3) in contrast to the derived quadrifid venation (with M2 closer to M3 than M1) of Euteliidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae and Nolidae. However, the Australian Oenosandridae are associated with the quadrifid families by the possession of a posteriorly facing tympanal membrane in contrast to the ventrally facing tympanal membrane of Notodontidae (Zahiri et al. 2011). The Nolidae produce a distinctive boat-shaped cocoon with a vertical exit slit (Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; proboscis often strong, sometimes reduced or absent; maxillary palps very small, l–4-segmented or absent; fore wing without CuP; hind wing with frenulum, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes forming anal fork; metathorax with tympanal organs, rarely reduced or lost, tympanum directed ventrally or obliquely posteriorly; abdomen with basal counter-tympanal cavities, usually with prominent hood, with abdominal spiracle 1 either on anterior face (hood postspiracular) or at posteroventral angle (hood pre-spiracular). Eggs of upright type. Larva sometimes with dense secondary setae, crochets uniordinal, rarely biordinal, in a mesoseries.

<==Noctuoidea [Noctuae, Noctuites, Notodontoidea]
    |  i. s.: Strepsimanes Meyrick 1930 [Strepsimanidae, Strepsimaninae]FL05
    |         KenguichardiaZK11
    |         PlagerepneZK11
    |         ClytophyllaZK11
    |         Crebus odorusG20
    |--+--OenosandridaeZK11
    |  |    |--Oenosandra Walker 1856FL05
    |  |    |    `--O. boisduvaliiNC91
    |  |    `--Discophlebia catocalinaZK11, NC91
    |  `--+--+--EuteliidaeZK11
    |     |  `--NoctuidaeZK11
    |     `--+--ErebidaeZK11
    |        `--NolidaeZK11
    |             |  i. s.: Risoba Moore 1881 [Risobinae]FL05
    |             |         Collomena Möschler 1890 [Collomeninae]FL05
    |             |         Afrida Möschler 1886 [Afridinae]FL05
    |             |--NolinaeZK11
    |             `--+--ChloephorinaeZK11
    |                `--+--WestermanniinaeZK11
    |                   |    |--Negeta sigmataZK11
    |                   |    `--Westermannia Hübner 1821FL05
    |                   `--+--Selepa molybdeaZK11
    |                      `--Eligma Hübner 1819FL05 [EligminaeZK11, Eligmini]
    |                           `--E. narcissusZK11
    `--NotodontidaeZK11
         |  i. s.: GallabaM03
         |         SchizuraGE05
         |         Scea auriflammaGE05
         |         Lyces striataGE05
         |         Gangarides Moore 1866 [incl. Thermojana Yang in Yang & Chen 1995]NO08
         |           `--*Thermojana’ sinica Yang in Yang & Chen 1995NO08
         |         Lephopteryx camelinaP01
         |         DestolmiaNC91
         |         SoramaNC91
         |         Antimima crypticaN91
         |         Cerurites wagneriRJ93
         |         SymmeristaS96
         |           |--S. albifronsS96
         |           `--S. fulgens Druce 1901D01a
         |         Edema audax Druce 1901D01a
         |         Rosema Walker 1855 [Rosemini]FL05
         |           `--R. dolorosa Druce 1901D01a
         |         Ichthyura rubida Druce 1901D01a
         |         Blera peruda Druce 1901D01a
         |         Cleapa psecas Druce 1901D01a
         |         Rifargia nubila Druce 1901D01b
         |         Macrurocampa marthesiaS96
         |         Lophopteryx eumeta Druce 1900D00
         |         Somera viridifuscaD00
         |         Platychasma Butler 1881 [Platychasmatinae]FL05
         |         Hemiceras Guenée 1852 [Hemiceratinae]FL05
         |         Ceira Walker 1865 [Ceirinae]FL05
         |--+--PygaerinaeZK11
         |  `--DudusinaeZK11
         |       |  i. s.: CrinodesZK11
         |       |           |--C. besckeiZK11
         |       |           `--C. minuta Druce 1900D00
         |       |--DudusiniFL05
         |       |    |--Dudusa Walker 1865FL05
         |       |    |    `--D. sphingiformisP01
         |       |    `--Tarsolepis Butler 1872 [Tarsolepidinae]FL05
         |       `--Scrancia Holland 1893 [Scranciini]FL05
         `--+--+--ThaumetopoeinaeZK11
            |  `--Phalera Hübner 1819FL05 [Phaleridae, PhalerinaeZK11]
            |       |--P. bucephala (Linnaeus 1758)L-SSY04
            |       `--P. bucephaloides Ochsenheimer 1808B08
            `--+--HeterocampinaeZK11
               `--+--NotodontinaeZK11
                  `--+--NystaleinaeZK11
                     |    |--Nystalea Guenée 1852FL05
                     |    |    `--N. striataZK11
                     |    `--Notoplusia minutaKP19
                     `--Dioptinae [Dioptidae]ZK11
                          |--Scotura leucophlepsZK11
                          |--Dioptis Hübner 1818FL05
                          |--PhryganidiaRD77
                          |--Polypoetes nox Druce 1900D00
                          `--Josia Hübner 1819 [Josiidae]FL05
                               |--J. giganteaGE05
                               `--J. tessmaniGE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[D00] Druce, H. 1900. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Heterocera from tropical South America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 507–527.

[D01a] Druce, H. 1901a. Descriptions of some new species of Heterocera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 74–79.

[D01b] Druce, H. 1901b. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[FL05] Fibiger, M., & J. D. Lafontaine. 2005. A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Esperiana 11: 7–92.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59–66.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008b. Errata et addenda. Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 124.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

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