Longitudinal section of Syzrania pulchra, from Groves et al. (2003).

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Palaeotextulariidae, Nodosariida, Polymorphinida, Ellipsolagenidae, Lagena, Globivalvulinidae, LenticulinaMarginulina, Lingulinidae.

The Lagenida are a group of foraminifera with a low-magnesium, calcitic secreted test that is monolamellar and radial (Groves et al. 2004) They first appeared in the middle late Carboniferous, though they did not become prominent until the Middle Permian (Grobes et al. 2003).

<==Nodosariana [Biseriamminacea, Lagenina, Palaeotextulariacea, Robuloidacea]M13
    |    |--PalaeotextulariidaeM13
    |    `--Louisettita Altiner & Bronnimann 1980R-CB96 [LouisettitidaeM13, Louisetitioidea]
    |--Delosina Wiesner 1931C40 [DelosinidaM13, Delosinidae]
    |    |--*D. complexa (Sidebottom 1907) [=Polymorphina complexa]LT64b
    |    `--D. sutilisC40
    |--Lagenida [Enclinostegia, Lagenicae, Lagenidea, Lagenina, Nodosalidia, Nodosariacea, Titanostichostegia]PHT13
    |    |  i. s.: Polarisella Mamet & Pinard 1992GAR03
    |    |           `--*P. blindensis Mamet & Pinard 1992GAR03
    |    |         Olympina Reichel 1946GRA04
    |    |           `--*O. insolita Reichel 1945LT64a
    |    |--NodosariidaGAR03
    |    |--PolymorphinidaPHT13
    |    `--+--EllipsolagenidaeM13
    |       |--SipholagenidaeM13
    |       |--AsipholagenidaeM13
    |       `--Lagenidae [Rhabdoina]M13
    |            |  i. s.: Reussoolina Colom 1956HW93
    |            |           `--*R. apiculata (Reuss 1851) [=Oolina apiculata, Lagena (*Reussoolina) apiculata]LT64b
    |            |--LagenaM13
    |            `--CribrolageninaeM13
    |    |--GlobivalvulinidaeM13
    |    `--BiseriamminidaeK04
    |         |--Parabiseriella Cozar & Somerville 2012M13
    |         |--Biseriella Mamet 1974R-CB96
    |         |    `--*B. parva (Tchernysheva 1948) [=Globivalvulina parva]R-CB96
    |         |--Biseriammina Tchernysheva 1941R-CB96
    |         |    `--*B. uralica Tchernysheva 1941R-CB96
    |         |--Globispiroplectammina Vachard 1977R-CB96
    |         |    `--*G. mameti Vachard 1977R-CB96
    |         |--Lipinella Malakhova 1975R-CB96
    |         |    `--*L. notata Malakhova 1975R-CB96
    |         |--Paraglobivalvulinoides Zaninetti & Jenny-Deshusses 1985R-CB96
    |         |    `--*P. septulifera (Zaninetti & Altiner 1981) [=Paraglobivalvulina septulifera]R-CB96
    |         `--Tenebrosella Villa & Sanchez de Posada 1986R-CB96
    |              `--*T. asturica Villa & Sanchez de Posada 1986R-CB96
         |--Nanicella Henbest 1935LT64a [NanicellidaeM13, Nanicellinae]
         |    `--*N. gallowayi (Thomas 1931) [=Endothyra gallowayi]LT64a
         |--Palmula Lea 1833LT64b (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*P. sagittaria Lea 1833C40
         |    |--*Planularia’ elliptica Nilsson 1826LT64b
         |    |--*Frondiculina’ obliqua von Münster 1838LT64b
         |    |--P. reticulataC40
         |    `--P. tenuistriata (Franke 1936) [=Flabellina tenuistriata, *Falsopalmula tenuistriata]LT64b
         |    |--Parinvolutina Pelissié & Peybernes 1982HW93
         |    `--Robuloides Reichel 1946W76 [incl. Pararobuloides Miklukho-Maklay 1954LT64a]
         |         |--*R. lens Reichel 1945LT64a
         |         |--R. acutus Reichel 1946W76
         |         |--R. gourisiensisFP12
         |         `--R. orientalis (Miklukho-Maklay 1954) [=*Pararobuloides orientalis]LT64a
              |--Vaginulinopsis Silvestri 1904HW93
              |    |--*V. carinata (Silvestri 1898) (see below for synonymy)LT64b
              |    |--V. hochstetteriB49
              |    |--V. soluta (Silvestri 1898) (see below for synonymy)LT64b
              |    `--V. subgibba (Parr 1950)A68
              `--Vaginulina d’Orbigny 1826C40 [=Vaginula Risso 1826LT64b, Vaginulinella (l. c.)LT64b]
                   |--*V. legumen (Linnaeus 1758) [=Nautilus legumen, *Vaginula legumen]LT64b
                   |--V. directaM08
                   |--V. elegansB49
                   |--V. kochii [incl. V. kochii var. striolata]C40
                   |--V. midwayanaQS03
                   |--V. patensC40
                   |--V. striataJP64
                   |--V. vertebralis Parr 1932A68
                   `--V. webbervillensisC40

Palmula Lea 1833LT64b [incl. Falsopalmula Bartenstein 1948LT64b, Frondiculina von Münster in Roemer 1838 non Lamarck 1816LT64b, Phalsopalmula Agalarova 1960LT64b, Planularia Nilsson 1826 non Defrance 1826LT64b; PalmulidaeM13]

*Vaginulinopsis carinata (Silvestri 1898) [=Vaginulina soluta var. carinata, Vaginulinopsis inversa var. carinata]LT64b

Vaginulinopsis soluta (Silvestri 1898) [=Vaginulina soluta; incl. Marginulina inversa Costa 1856 non Neugeboren 1851, Vaginulinopsis inversa]LT64b

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A68] Albani, A. D. 1968. Recent Foraminiferida of the central coast of New South Wales. AMSA Handbook 1: 1–37.

[B49] Battey, M. H. 1949. The geology of the Tuakau-Mercer area, Auckland. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 429–455.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FP12] Farabegoli, E., & M. C. Perri. 2012. Millennial physical events and the end-Permian mass mortality in the western Palaeotethys: timing and primary causes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 719–758. Springer.

[GAR03] Groves, J. R., D. Altiner & R. Rettori. 2003. Origin and early evolutionary radiation of the order Lagenida (Foraminifera). Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 831–843.

[GRA04] Groves, J. R., R. Rettori & D. Altiner. 2004. Wall structures in selected Paleozoic lagenide Foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 78: 245–256.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[JP64] Jones, T. R., & W. K. Parker. 1864. Notes on some fossil and Recent Foraminifera, collected in Jamaica by the late Lucas Barrett, F.G.S. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 80.

[K04] Kobayashi, F. 2004. Late Permian foraminifers from the Limestone Block in the Southern Chichibu Terrane of west Shikoku, SW Japan. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 62–70.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M08] McMillan, I. K. 2008. Reappraisal of foraminiferal assemblages of the Santonian–Campanian Mzamba Formation type section, and their correlation with the stratigraphic succession of the KwaZulu Basin. African Natural History 4: 25–34.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

[QS03] Quattrocchio, M. E., & W. A. S. Sarjeant. 2003. Dinoflagellates from the Chorrillo Chico Formation (Paleocene) of southern Chile. Ameghiniana 40 (2): 129–153.

[R-CB96] Rauzer-Chernousova, D. M., F. R. Bensh, M. V. Vdovenko, N. B. Gibshman, E. Y. Leven, O. A. Lipina, E. A. Reitlinger, M. N. Solovieva & I. O. Chedija. 1996. Spravočnik po Sistematike Foraminifer Paleozoâ (Èndotiroidy, Fuzulinoidy). Rossijskaâ Akademiâ Nauk, Geologičeskij Institut, Moskva “Nauka”.

[W76] Wang K. 1976. The foraminifera from the Changhsing Formation in western Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 15 (2): 187–195.

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