Lingulina pagoda, from Haeckel (1899–1904), via micro*scope.

Belongs within: Nodosariina.

The Lagenidae are a group of Foraminifera known from the Permian to the present. They are divided between three subfamilies, which may be distinguished by the shape of the aperture: rounded or radiate in Nodosariinae, a single elongate slit in the Lingulininae, or dentate or cribrate in the Plectofrondiculariinae. The chambers of the test are commonly arranged in a straight or arcuate series in all three subfamilies, or in an enrolled series in a number of Nodosariinae (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free, one or more chambers in planispiral, biserial, uncoiling, curved or straight series; aperture simple, slitlike or radiate, peripheral in coiled forms, terminal in straight forms, may have apertural chamberlet, or may have elongate neck.

Nodosariidae [Aequilateralidae, Equilateralidae, Nautiloidae, Nodosariinae, Stichostegia]G-B87
|--Fingerina Hayward in Hayward et al. 2012M13
|--Alfredosilvestris Andersen 1961LT64
| `--*A. levinsoni Andersen 1961LT64
|--Austrocolomia Oberhauser 1960LT64
| `--*A. marschalli Oberhauser 1960LT64
|--Cribrorobulina Thalmann 1947LT64
| `--*C. serpens (Seguenza 1880) [=Robulina serpens]LT64
|--Dentalinoides Marie 1941LT64
| `--*D. canulina Marie 1941LT64
|--Dentalinopsis Reuss 1860LT64
| `--*D. semitriquetra Reuss 1860LT64
|--Dimorphina d’Orbigny 1826 [=Glandulodimorphina Silvestri 1901]LT64
| `--*D. tuberosa d’Orbigny 1826 [=*Glandulodimorphina tuberosa]LT64
|--Dyofrondicularia Asano 1936LT64
| `--*D. nipponica Asano 1936C40
|--Involutaria Gerke 1957LT64
| `--*I. triassica Gerke 1957LT64
|--Kyphopyxa Cushman 1929LT64
| `--*K. christneri (Carsey 1926) [=Frondicularia christneri]LT64
|--Lagenoglandulina Silvestri 1923LT64
| `--*L. subovata (Stache 1865) [=Glandulina subovata]LT64
|--Lankesterina Loeblich & Tappan 1961LT64
| `--*L. frondea (Cushman 1922) [=Bolivina frondea, Polymorphina frondea]LT61
|--Marginulinopsis Silvestri 1904LT64
| |--*M. densicostata Thalmann 1937LT64
| `--M. bradyi (Goes 1894)A68
|--Orthomorphina Stainforth 1952LT64
| `--*O. havanensis (Cushman & Bermudez 1937) [=Nodogenerina havanensis]LT64
|--Pandaglandulina Loeblich & Tappan 1955 [=Pandoglandulina (l. c.)]LT64
| `--*P. dinapolii Loeblich & Tappan 1955LT64
|--Pseudotristix Miklukho-Maklay 1960LT64
| `--*P. tcherdynzevi (Miklukho-Maklay 1960) [=Tristix (*Pseudotristix) tcherdynzevi]LT64
|--Tentifrons Loeblich & Tappan 1957LT64
| `--*T. barnardi Loeblich & Tappan 1957LT64
|--Berthelinella Loeblich & Tappan 1957HW93
| `--*B. paradoxa (Berthelin 1879) [=Frondicularia paradoxa]LT64
|--Citharinella Marie 1938LT64
| |--*C. karreri (Berthelin 1880) [=Flabellina karreri]LT64
| `--C. tarrantensisLT64
|--Flabellinella Schubert 1900LT64
| |--*F. tetschensis (Matouschek 1895) [=Frondicularia tetschensis]LT64
| `--F. zittellianaC40
|--Neoflabellina Bartenstein 1948 [=Flabellina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 non Gray in Griffiths & Pidgeon 1833]LT64
| |--*N. rugosa (d’Orbigny 1840)LT64 [=*Flabellina rugosaLT64, Palmula rugosaC40]
| `--N. reticulataG-B87
|--‘Cribrella’ Gawor-Biedowa 1987 nec Agassiz 1835 nec Lütken 1857G-B87
| |--*C. lacrima Gawor-Biedowa 1987G-B87
| |--C. fusiformis Gawor-Biedowa 1987G-B87
| `--C. ovata Gawor-Biedowa 1987G-B87
|--Planularia Defrance in de Blainville 1826 [incl. Megathyra Ehrenberg 1843]LT64
| |--*P. auris (Defrance 1824) [=Peneroplis auris]LT64
| |--P. advenaC40
| |--P. crepidulaM62
| |--P. patens (Brady 1884)A68
| `--*Megathyra’ planularia Ehrenberg 1843LT64
|--Pseudarcella Spandel 1909LT64 [=Arpseudacelloum Rhumbler 1913LT64, Pseudoarcella (l. c.)H75]
| |--*P. rhumbleri Spandel 1909H75
| |--P. campanulaLT64
| |--P. feugueuriLT64
| `--P. patellaLT64
|--Pseudonodosaria Boomgaart 1949 [incl. Rectoglandulina Loeblich & Tappan 1955]LT64
| |--*P. discreta (Reuss 1850) [=Glandulina discreta]LT64
| |--P. appressa (Loeblich & Tappan 1955) [=*Rectoglandulina appressa]LT64
| |--P. humilisBL79
| |--P. obesaG-B87
| `--P. rotundata (Reuss 1849)A68
|--Amphicoryna Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1881C40, LT64 (see below for synonymy)
| |--A. scalaris (Batsch 1791)LT64 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*Plesiocorine’ edwardsi Schlumberger 1882LT64
| |--*Vaginoglandulina’ laevigata Silvestri 1906LT64
| `--A. separans (Brady 1884) [=Nodosaria scalaris var. separans, *Lagenonodosaria separans]LT64
|--Citharina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 (see below for synonymy)LT64
| |--*C. strigillata (Reuss 1846) [=Vaginulina (*Citharina) strigillata]LT64
| |--C. colliezi (Terquem 1866) [=Marginulina colliezi, *Pseudocitharina colliezi]LT64
| |--C. discorsLT64
| |--C. gracilanaM08
| |--C. inaequistriata (Terquem 1864) [=Marginulina inaequistriata, *Saccularia inaequistriata]LT64
| |--*Hybridina’ obliqua Kübler & Zwingli 1866LT64
| `--*Pseudovaginulina’ oxyacantha Wedekind 1937LT64
|--Saracenaria Defrance in de Blainville 1824 [incl. Hemirobulina Stache 1865, Saracenella Franke 1936]LT64
| |--*S. italica Defrance 1824C40
| |--S. akitaensis Iwasa & Kikuchi 1954H03
| |--S. angularisJW99
| |--*Hemirobulina’ arcuatula Stache 1865LT64
| |--‘Triplasia’ manderstjeni Costa 1894LT52
| |--S. spinosaBL79
| |--S. triangularisM08
| `--S. trigona (Terquem 1866)C40, LT64 [=Marginulina trigonaLT64, *Saracenella trigonaC40]
|--Astacolus de Montfort 1808 (see below for synonymy)LT64
| |--A. crepidulus (Fichtel & Moll 1798) (see below for synonymy)LT64
| |--A. alexandrae (Zalessky 1926) [=*Cochlidion alexandrae]LT64
| |--A. barrowensis Tappan in Loeblich & Tappan 1961 [=A. calliopsis Tappan 1955 non (Reuss 1863)]LT61
| |--‘Cristellaria’ decorata Reuss 1855 [=*Gladiaria (sensu Thalmann) decorata]LT64
| |--*Periples’ elongatus de Montfort 1808LT64
| |--*Sacculariella’ ensis Wedekind 1937LT64
| |--A. gratusBL79
| |--‘Cristellaria’ hermanni Andreae 1896 [=*Gladiaria hermanni]LT64
| |--‘Cristellaria’ recta d’Orbigny 1840 [=*Enantiovaginulina recta]LT64
| |--A. sapricolli (Zalessky 1926) [=*Cochlea sapracolli]LT64
| |--A. schloenbachiBL79
| |--A. spiralis (Cushman & Hanzawa 1936) [=*Polymorphinoides spiralis]LT64
| |--A. tripleurusBL79
| `--A. vaginulaeformis (Cushman & Hanzawa 1936) [=*Polymorphinella vaginulaeformis]LT64
`--Nodosaria Lamarck 1812G-B87 (see below for synonymy)
|--*N. radicula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Nautilus radicula, *Orthocera radicula]S64
|--N. affinisC40
|--N. bellaW76
|--N. cidarina (Grzybowski 1896) [=Lagena (*Cidaria) cidarina]LT64
|--‘Nautilus’ comatus Batsch 1791 [=*Pseudoglandulina comata]LT64
|--N. concinnaBL79
|--‘Pseudoglandulina’ conicaC40
|--N. delicata Wang 1976W76
|--N. elabugaeFP12
|--*Pyramidulina’ eptagona Costa 1894LT64
|--N. fisheriW76
|--N. geinitziW76
|--N. longiscataB49
|--‘Pseudoglandulina’ parallelaC40
|--N. perforata Seguenza 1880 [=*Nodosariopsis perforata]LT64
|--N. permiana [=N. (Dentalium) permiana]F71
|--N. proboscideaM08
|--N. raphanistrumJP64
|--‘Nautilus’ raphanus Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)LT64
|--N. solutaC40
|--N. spinicostaH04
|--N. turkomanica Brodsky 1929G86
`--N. zippeiM08

Amphicoryna Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1881C40, LT64 [=Amphicoryne Brady 1884LT64, Amphycorina (l. c.)LT64; incl. Lagenonodosaria Silvestri 1900LT64, Nodosariopsis Silvestri 1902 non Rzehak 1895LT64, Plesiocorine Schlumberger in Milne-Edwards 1882LT64, Plesiocoryna (l. c.)LT64, Vaginoglandulina Silvestri 1906LT64]

Amphicoryna scalaris (Batsch 1791)LT64 [=Nautilus scalarisLT64, Lagenonodosaria scalarisB49; incl. Marginulina falx Jones & Parker 1860LT64, *Amphicoryna falxLT64, *Nodosariopsis falxLT64]

Astacolus de Montfort 1808 [=Chrysolus de Montfort 1808; incl. Cochlea Zalessky 1926 nec da Costa 1778 nec Martyn 1784 nec Gray 1847 nec Hitchcock 1858, Cochlidion Zalessky 1826, Crepidulina de Blainville 1824, Enantiovaginulina Marie 1941, Gladiaria Wick 1939, Gladiaria Thalmann 1941 non Wick 1939, Polymorphinella Cushman & Hanzawa 1936, Polymorphinoides Cushman & Hanzawa 1936, Periples de Montfort 1808, Sacculariella Wedekind 1937]LT64

Astacolus crepidulus (Fichtel & Moll 1798) [=Nautilus crepidulus; incl. *Crepidulina astacolus de Blainville 1824, *Astacolus crepidulatus de Montfort 1808, *Chrysolus crepidulatus]LT64

Citharina d’Orbigny in de la Sagra 1839 [=Cytharina (l. c.); incl. Hybridina Kübler & Zwingli 1866, Pseudocitharina Payard 1947, Pseudovaginulina Wedekind 1937, Saccularia Wedekind 1937]LT64

‘Nautilus’ raphanus Linnaeus 1758 [=*Nodosariella raphanus, *Nodosarina raphanus, *Orthocera (sensu Lamarck) raphanus]LT64

Nodosaria Lamarck 1812G-B87 [=Orthocera Modeer 1789 (nom. rej.)S64; incl. Cidaria Grzybowski 1896 non Treitschke 1825LT64, Herrmannia Andreae 1895 (n. n.)LT64, Nodosariella Wedekind 1937LT64, Nodosarina Parker & Jones 1859LT64, Nodosariopsis Rzehak 1895LT64, Orthocera Lamarck 1799 non Modeer 1789LT64, Pseudoglandulina Cushman 1929LT64, Pyramidulina Costa in Fornasini 1894LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BL79] Basov, V. A., B. G. Lopatin, I. S. Gramberg, A. I. Danjushevskaya, V. Ya. Kaban’kov, V. M. Lazurkin & D. K. Patrunov. 1979. Lower Cretaceous lithostratigraphy near Galicia Bank. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 47: 683–717.

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[FP12] Farabegoli, E., & M. C. Perri. 2012. Millennial physical events and the end-Permian mass mortality in the western Palaeotethys: timing and primary causes. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 719–758. Springer.

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