Holcopasites calliopsidis, copyright Heather Holm.

Belongs within: Apidae.
Contains: Nomada.

The Nomadinae are a group of small, wasp-like bees cleptoparasitic on members of other bee groups. Eggs are typically laid embedded within the host cell wall to conceal them before hatching.

Characters (from Michener 1965): Small, slender bees; clypeus strongly protuberant so that, seen from below, lateral parts are bent back parallel to long axis of body; stigma large, extending well into marginal cell beyond base of vein r; marginal cell longer than distance from its apex to wing tip and pointed on wing margin; pygidial plate present in female.

    |  i. s.: Paleoepeolus micheneriSN18
    |         PhileremusL49
    |           |--P. dufouriiR26
    |           `--P. oraniensisL49
    |  |    |--Caenoprosopis crabronina Holmberg 1887CSD10
    |  |    `--Caenoprosopina holmbergi Roig-Alsina 1987CSD10
    |  `--AmmobatiniCSD10
    |       |--+--Sphecodopsis capensis (Friese 1915)CSD10
    |       |  `--PasitesCSD10
    |       |       |--P. atraR26
    |       |       |--P. maculatus Jurine 1807CSD10
    |       |       `--P. schottii [=Nomada (Pasites) schottii]G20
    |       `--+--Oreopasites barbarae Rozen 1992CSD10
    |          `--AmmobatesCSD10
    |               |--A. oraniensisR35
    |               |--A. punctatus (Fabricius 1804)CSD10
    |               |--A. rufiventris [=Nomada (Ammobates) rufiventris]G20
    |               `--A. syriacusPK17
       |  |    |--Brachynomada margaretae (Rozen 1994)CSD10
       |  |    `--+--Triopasites penniger (Cockerell 1894)CSD10
       |  |       `--Paranomada velutina Linsley 1939CSD10
       |  `--EpeoliniCSD10
       |       |--OdyneropsisCSD10
       |       `--+--Epeolus Latreille 1802CSD10, L02
       |          |    |--*E. variegatus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, CSD10 [=Nomada variegataL02; incl. N. crucigeraL02]
       |          |    |--E. gayiR35
       |          |    |--E. jullianiiMS01
       |          |    `--E. scutellaris Say 1824CSD10
       |          `--+--TriepeolusCSD10
       |             |    |--T. concavusR35
       |             |    |--T. occidentalisR35
       |             |    `--T. robustus (Cresson 1878)CSD10
       |             `--+--Thalestria spinosa (Fabricius 1804)CSD10
       |                `--+--Rhinepeolus rufiventris (Friese 1908)CSD10
       |                   `--DoeringiellaCSD10
          |  |    |--Ammobatoides luctuosus (Friese 1911)CSD10
          |  |    `--HolcopasitesCSD10
          |  |         |--H. insoletus (Linsley 1942)CSD10
          |  |         `--+--+--H. minimus (Linsley 1943)CSD10
          |  |            |  `--H. stevensi Crawford 1915CSD10
          |  |            `--+--H. calliopsidis (Linsley 1943)CSD10
          |  |               `--+--H. arizonicus (Linsley 1942)CSD10
          |  |                  `--H. ruthae Cooper 1993CSD10
          |  `--+--Hexepeolus [Hexepeolini]CSD10
          |     |    `--H. rhodogyne Linsley & Michener 1937CSD10
          |     `--+--Neolarra [Neolarrini]CSD10
          |        |    `--N. orbiculata Shanks 1978CSD10
          |        `--+--Townsendiella [Townsendiellini]CSD10
          |           `--BiastiniCSD10
          |                |--Biastes truncatus (Nylander 1848)CSD10
          |                `--Neopasites cressoni Crawford 1916CSD10

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SN18] Sann, M., O. Niehuis, R. S. Peters, C. Mayer, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, S. Bank, K. Meusemann, B. Misof, C. Bleidorn & M. Ohl. 2018. Phylogenomic analysis of Apoidea sheds new light on the sister group of bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 71.

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