Mounted skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus in the American Museum of Natural History, photographed by Claire Houck.

Belongs within: Adapiformes.

The Notharctinae are a group of Eocene lemur-like primates found in Europe and North America, with the higher diversity in the latter. They were supported as a clade in the morphological analysis of Seiffert et al. (2009), but synapomorphies were not explicitly listed. The type genus Notharctus includes some of the last surviving primates in North America before the arrival of humans.

| i. s.: Periconodon Stehlin 1916MA05, S62
| `--*P. helveticus (Rütimeyer 1891) [=Pelycodus helveticus]S62
|--+--Cantius Simons 1962NG13, S62
| | |--*C. eppsi (Cooper 1932) [=Protoadapis eppsi]S62
| | |--C. abditusOB13
| | |--C. frugivorusNG13
| | |--C. torresi Gingerich 1986T90
| | `--C. trigonodusHUG17
| `--+--Barnesia hauboldiSP09
| `--Protoadapis Lemoine 1878SP09, S62 [incl. Megatarsius Weigelt 1933S62]
| |--*P. curvicuspidens Lemoine 1878S62 (see below for synonymy)
| |--P. angustidens (Filhol 1888) [=Adapis angustidens; incl. Protadapis brachyrhynchus Stehlin 1912]S62
| |--P. copeiS62
| `--P. raabiS62
`--+--Smilodectes Wortmann 1903NG13, SKS05 [incl. AphanolemurS62]
| |--‘Aphanolemur’ gibbosus Granger & Gregory 1917S62
| `--S. gracilis Marsh 1871SKS05
`--Notharctus Leidy 1870NG13, D07 (see below for synonymy)
|--‘Pelycodus’ angulatum Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium angulatus]C77
|--N. crassusWR07
|--‘Pelycodus’ frugivorus Cope 1875 [=Tomitherium frugivorus]C77
|--‘Prototomus’ jarrovii Cope 1874 [=Pelycodus jarrovii, Tomitherium jarrovii]C77
|--N. limosus Gazin 1952G52
|--N. nuniensis (Cope 1881)G52
|--N. osborniNG13
|--N. pubnaxD07
|--N. robinsoniD07
|--N. robustiorWR07
|--‘Tomitherium’ rostratumC77
|--N. tenebrosus Leidy 1870SKS05
|--‘Tomitherium’ tutum Cope 1877C77
|--N. tyrannusBS07
`--N. venticolus Osborn 1902G52

Notharctus Leidy 1870NG13, D07 [incl. Limnotherium Marsh 1871V66, Prosinopa Trouessart 1897V66, Telmalestes Marsh 1872V66, Telmatolestes Marsh 1872V66, Thinolestes Marsh 1872V66, Tomitherium Cope 1872V66]

*Protoadapis curvicuspidens Lemoine 1878S62 [incl. Proto. recticuspidens Lemoine 1878RLS67, S62, Protiadapis recticuspidensS62]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS07] Bloch, J. I., M. T. Silcox, D. M. Boyer & E. J. Sargis. 2007. New Paleocene skeletons and the relationship of plesiadapiforms to crown-clade primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (4): 1159–1164.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G52] Gazin, C. L. 1952. The Lower Eocene Knight Formation of western Wyoming and its mammalian faunas. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (18): 1–82, 11 pls.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[MA05] Marivaux, L., P.-O. Antoine, S. R. H. Baqri, M. Benammi, Y. Chaimanee, J.-Y. Crochet, D. de Franceschi, N. Iqbal, J.-J. Jaeger, G. Métais, G. Roohi & J.-L. Welcomme. 2005. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102 (24): 8436–8441.

[NG13] Ni, X., D. L. Gebo, M. Dagosto, J. Meng, P. Tafforeau, J. J. Flynn & K. C. Beard. 2013. The oldest known primate skeleton and early haplorhine evolution. Nature 498: 60–64.

[OB13] O’Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[RLS67] Russell, D. E., P. Louis & D. E. Savage. 1967. Primates of the French early Eocene. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 73: 1–46.

[SKS05] Scherf, H., B. Koller & F. Schrenk. 2005. Locomotion-related structures in the femoral trabecular architecture of primates and insectivores (Mammalia, Primates and Insectivora). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 101–112.

[SP09] Seiffert, E. R., J. M. G. Perry, E. L. Simons & D. M. Boyer. 2009. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates. Nature 461: 1118–1121.

[S62] Simons, E. L. 1962. A new Eocene primate genus, Cantius, and a revision of some allied European lemuroids. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology 7 (1): 1–36.

[T90] Thewissen, J. G. M. 1990. Evolution of Paleocene and Eocene Phenacodontidae (Mammalia, Condylarthra). Museum of Paleontology Papers on Paleontology 29: 1–107.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1–126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

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