Anisops sp., from Landcare Research.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.

The Notonectoidea, backswimmers, are a group of aquatic, predatory bugs with a strongly, transversely arched body and a short or absent forewing membrane. In members of the family Notonectidae, the hind legs are oar-like with a single terminal claw and flattened tibiae bearing a fringe of long hairs (Carver et al. 1991). This hair fringe is absent in the small species of the families Pleidae and Helotrephidae. Pleidae have a punctate or reticulate pattern on the pronotum and a vestigial or absent hemelytral membrane (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Richards & Davies 1977): Aquatic species; rostrum more or less elongate, three- or four-segmented; antennae always concealed; fore tarsi not spatulate; ocelli absent.

    |  i. s.: MesotrephesS02 [MesotrephidaeSP02]
    |  `--Pleidae [Pleinae]GE05
    |       |--PleaCGW91
    |       |    |--P. atomariaRD77
    |       |    |--P. leachi [incl. P. minutissima]H01
    |       |    `--P. rufonotata Distant 1914D14
    |       `--ParapleaPH10
         |  i. s.: NepidiumGE05
         |         AsionectaGE05
         |         NotonectitesGE05
         |         PelonectaGE05
         |         Buenoa scimitraWL09
         |    |--Canteronecta irajaeS02
         |    `--ClypostemmaGE05
         |         |--C. limnaS02
         |         `--C. xyphiale Popov 1964ZG05
         |    |--Paranisops inconstansCGW91
         |    |--WalambianisopsCGW91
         |    `--AnisopsCGW91
         |         |--A. assimilisD14
         |         |--A. calcaratusTDC06
         |         |--A. canaliculatusPH10
         |         |--A. cleopatra Distant 1914D14
         |         |--A. deichmuelleriS02
         |         |--A. elstoniPH10
         |         |--A. gratusTDC06
         |         |--A. hackeriPH10
         |         |--A. heydeniS02
         |         |--A. hyperion Kirk 1898D14
         |         |--A. inconstansWEE70
         |         |--A. nabillusPH10
         |         |--A. nasutaPH10
         |         |--A. occipitalisPH10
         |         |--A. paraexigerusPH10
         |         |--A. stali Kirkaldy 1904T13
         |         |--A. thienemanniTDC06
         |         `--A. wakefieldiPC66
              |--Nychia sapphoCGW91
              |    |--E. bergrothi Montand. 1892D14
              |    `--E. woodwardiCGW91
              `--Notonecta Linnaeus 1758L58
                   |--N. glauca Linnaeus 1758L58
                   |--N. handlirschiCGW91
                   |--N. maculataRD77
                   |--N. melanotaR26
                   |--N. minutissima Linnaeus 1758L58
                   |--N. montandoni Kirkaldy 1897I92
                   |--N. sieblosiensisS02
                   |--N. striata Linnaeus 1758L58
                   |--N. triguttataI92
                   `--N. variegataR26

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175–183.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZG05] Zhang, J., V. B. Golub, Y. A. Popov & D. E. Shcherbakov. 2005. Ignotingidae fam. nov. (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingoidea), the earliest lace bugs from the Upper Mesozoic of eastern China. Cretaceous Research 26: 783–792.

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