Nucleolitidae

Nucleolites scutatus, from the Natural History Museum.

Belongs within: Cassiduloida.
Contains: Echinolampadidae.

The Nucleolitidae are recognised as a group of irregular echinoids known from the Middle Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous; however, they are also ancestral to a number of other families of cassiduloids with members ranging up to the present day (Kier 1966).

Characters (from Kier 1966): Apical system tetrabasal; petals moderately developed, usually open, with narrow poriferous zones; usually double pores in all ambulacral plates; phyllodes narrow; bourrelets moderately developed.

<==NucleolitidaeK66
    |--Clypeopygus d’Orbigny 1856K66
    |    `--*C. paultrei (Cotteau 1851) [=Clypeus paultrei]K66
    |--Pseudosorella Étallon 1859 [=Pseudodesorella (l. c.); incl. Neoclypeus de Loriol 1901]K66
    |    |--*P. orbignyana (Cotteau 1855) [=Desoria orbignyana]K66
    |    `--*Neoclypeus’ syriacus de Loriol 1901K66
    |--Nucleolites Lamarck 1801 (see below for synonymy)K66
    |    |--*N. scutatus Lamarck 1816K66 [=*Echinobrissus scutatusK66, Echinoneus scutatusG20]
    |    |--N. amplus Agassiz in Agassiz & Desor 1847 [=*Notopygus amplus]K66
    |    |--‘Echinobrissus’ burgundiae Cotteau 1871 [=*Acromazus burgundiae]K66
    |    |--N. cordatus Goldfuss 1826 [=*Lophopygus cordatus]K66
    |    |--N. elongatus Agassiz 1840 [=*Holcoepygus elongatus]K66
    |    |--N. gracilis Agassiz 1840 [=*Cluniculus gracilis]K66
    |    |--‘Echinobrissus’ humilis Gauthier 1875 [=*Thigopygus humilis]K66
    |    |--N. latiporus Agassiz 1839SG93
    |    |--‘Echinobrissus’ lorioli Cotteau 1871 [=*Clitopygus lorioli]K66
    |    |--*Heteronucleus’ peroni Lambert 1911K66
    |    |--N. subquadratus Agassiz 1839 [=*Taphropygus subquadratus]K66
    |    |--N. terquemi Agassiz & Desor 1846SG93
    |    `--N. woodwardii Wright 1854SG93
    `--+--+--Hemicara Schlüter 1902K66
       |  |    `--*H. pomeranum Schlüter 1902K66
       |  |--Oolopygus d’Orbigny 1856 [incl. Pseudonucleus Lambert 1920]K66
       |  |    |--*O. gracilis Lambert 1909 [incl. *O. pyriformis d’Orbigny 1856 non Echinites pyriformis Leske 1778]K66
       |  |    `--*Pseudonucleus’ malladai Lambert 1920K66
       |  `--Catopygus Agassiz 1836 [incl. Penesticta Pomel 1883]K66
       |       |--*C. carinatus (Goldfuss 1826) [=Nucleolites carinatus]K66
       |       |--*Oolopygus’ bargesii d’Orbigny 1856 [=*Penesticta bargesii]K66
       |       `--C. obtususP93
       |--+--Pygaulus Agassiz 1847K66
       |  |    `--*P. desmoulinsii Agassiz 1847K66
       |  |--+--Plagiochasma Pomel 1883 [=Dochmostoma Duncan 1891, Trematopygus d’Orbigny 1857]K66
       |  |  |    `--*P. olfersii (Agassiz 1836) [=Nucleolites olfersii, *Dochmostoma olfersii, *Trematopygus olfersii]K66
       |  |  `--Pygopistes Pomel 1883K66
       |  |       `--*P. coquandi (Cotteau 1869) [=Pygaulus coquandi; incl. Catopygus floridus (n. n.)]K66
       |  `--+--+--EchinolampadidaeK66
       |     |  `--Pygorhynchus Agassiz 1839 [=Botriopygus d’Orbigny 1856, Bothriopygus (l. c.)]K66
       |     |       `--*P. obovatus (Agassiz 1836) [=Catopygus obovatus, *Botriopygus obovatus]K66
       |     `--+--Hypopygurus Gauthier 1889K66
       |        |    `--*H. gaudryi Gauthier 1889K66
       |        `--ClypeolampadidaeK66
       |             |--Clypeolampas Pomel 1869 [=Phylloclypeus de Loriol 1880]K66
       |             |    |--C. ovatus (Lamarck 1816) (see below for synonymy)K66
       |             |    `--C. vishnu Noetling 1897SG93
       |             `--Vologesia Cotteau & Gauthier 1895 [incl. Hungaresia Szörényi 1955, Pseudovulechinus Szörényi 1955]K66
       |                  |--*V. tataosi Cotteau & Gauthier 1895K66
       |                  |--V. helios (Noetling 1897)SG93
       |                  |--*Hungaresia’ hungarica Szörényi 1955K66
       |                  |--V. ovumK66
       |                  |--V. rhotomagensis (d’Orbigny 1856)SG93
       |                  `--*Pseudovulechinus’ rotundatus Szörényi 1955K66
       `--+--Phyllobrissus Cotteau 1859 (see below for synonymy)K66
          |    |--*P. gresslyi (Agassiz 1839) [=Catopygus gresslyi]K66
          |    |--‘Nucleolites’ cerceleti Desor in Agassiz & Desor 1847 [=*Anthobrissus cerceleti]K66
          |    `--‘Echinobrissus’ requieni Desor in Agassiz & Desor 1847 [=*Asterobrissus requieni, *Trochalia requieni]K66
          `--FaujasiidaeK66
               |  i. s.: Domechinus Kier 1962K66
               |           `--*D. chelonium (Cooke 1953) [=Faujasia chelonium]K66
               |--+--Eurypetalum Kier 1962K66
               |  |    `--*E. faujasii (Desmoulins 1837) [=Echinolampas faujasia]K66
               |  |--Lefortia Cossmann 1901 [=Pomelia de Loriol 1900 non Zittel 1878, Pomelopsis de Loriol 1901]K66
               |  |    `--*L. delgadoi (de Loriol 1900) [=*Pomelia delgadoi, *Pomelopsis delgadoi]K66
               |  |--Faujasia d’Orbigny 1856K66
               |  |    |--*F. apicalis (Desor 1847) [=Pygurus apicalis]K66
               |  |    |--F. araripensis Beurlen 1966SG93
               |  |    `--F. rancherina Cooke 1955SG93
               |  `--Petalobrissus Lambert 1916K66
               |       |--*P. setifensis (Cotteau 1866) [=Echinobrissus setifensis]K66
               |       |--P. daglensis (Thomas & Gauthier 1889)SG93
               |       |--P. inflatus (Thomas & Gauthier 1889)SG93
               |       `--P. lefebvreiK66
               `--+--+--Pygurostoma Cotteau & Gauthier 1895K66
                  |  |    `--*P. morgani Cotteau & Gauthier 1895K66
                  |  |--Gongrochanus Kier 1962 [=Cyrtoma M’Clelland 1840 non Meigen 1824]K66
                  |  |    `--*G. herscheliana (M’Clelland 1840) [=*Cyrtoma herscheliana]K66
                  |  `--Stigmatopygus d’Orbigny 1856K66
                  |       |--*S. galeatus d’Orbigny 1856K66
                  |       `--S. malheiroi de Loriol 1888SG93
                  `--+--Pygidiolampas Clark 1923K66
                     |    `--*P. eurynota Clark 1923K66
                     |--Fauraster Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry 1924K66
                     |    `--*F. priscus Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry 1924K66
                     |--Australanthus Bittner 1892K66
                     |    `--*A. longianus (Gregory 1890) (see below for synonymy)MM22
                     `--Hardouinia Haime in d’Archiac & Haime 1853 (see below for synonymy)K66
                          |--*H. mortonis (Michelin 1850) [=Pygorhynchus mortonis]K66
                          |--‘Cassidulus’ conoideus Clark in Clark & Twitchell 1915 (see below for synonymy)K66
                          `--*Gonioclypeus’ subangulata Emmons 1858K66

*Australanthus longianus (Gregory 1890) [=Cassidulus longianus, Procassidulus (*Australanthus) longianus]MM22

‘Cassidulus’ conoideus Clark in Clark & Twitchell 1915 [=*Clarkiella conoidea, *Cossmanaster conoideus]K66

Clypeolampas ovatus (Lamarck 1816) [=Galerites ovatus; incl. Clypeaster leskei Goldfuss 1829, *Clypeolampas leskei]K66

Hardouinia Haime in d’Archiac & Haime 1853 [=Harduinia (l. c.); incl. Clarkiella Lambert 1916, Clarkella (l. c.) non Walcott 1908, Cossmanaster Lambert 1920, Gonioclypeus Emmons 1858]K66

Nucleolites Lamarck 1801 [=Echinobrissus Gray 1825; incl. Acromazus Pomel 1883, Clitopygus Pomel 1883, Cluniculus Pomel 1883, Heteronucleus Lambert 1911, Holcoepygus Pomel 1883, Lophopygus Pomel 1883, Notopygus Pomel 1883, Taphropygus Pomel 1883, Thigopygus Pomel 1883]K66

Phyllobrissus Cotteau 1859 [incl. Anthobrissus Pomel 1883, Asterobrissus de Loriol 1888, Trochalia Pomel 1883 non Sharpe 1850]K66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K66] Kier, P. M. 1966. Cassiduloids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U492–U523. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[MM22] McNamara, K. J., & S. Martin. 2022. Middle Eocene echinoids from the western Eucla Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 37: 31–56.

[P93] Page, K. N. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancyloceratina). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 213–227. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *