Equatorial section of Nummulites laevigatus, copyright Missourian.

Belongs within: Rotaliida.

The Nummulitidae are a group of mostly planispiral Foraminifera with numerous median chambers known from the Upper Cretaceous to the present day. In members of the subfamily Nummulitinae, the median chambers are simple, whereas the Cycloclypeinae have the median chambers further subdivided into chamberlets (Loeblich & Tappan 1964b).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964b): Test normally planispiral, rarely with annular ephebic chambers; slightly asymmetrical to bilaterally symmetrical; involute or evolute; median chambers numerous, simple, or subdivided into chamberlets; complex canal system consisting of septal, marginal and vertical canals; aperture typically an arched slit at base of septa.

<==Nummulitidae [Camerinidae, Camerininae, Nummulitinae]
    |--Operculina d’Orbigny 1826B-F08, LT64b
    |    |--*O. complanata (Defrance 1822) [=Lenticulites complanatus, Nummulites complanatus non Lamarck 1804]LT64b
    |    |--O. aegyptiacaB-F08
    |    |--O. bartschiC40
    |    |--O. douvilleiB-F08
    |    |--O. patalensisBG98
    |    |--O. subgranosaB-F08
    |    `--O. victoriensisQ72
    `--+--Operculinella Yabe 1918B-F08 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*O. cumingii (Carpenter 1860) [=Amphistegina cumingii, *Pseudonummulites cumingii, *Verbeekia cumingii]LT64b
       |    |--‘Nummulina’ pristina Brady 1874 [=*Palaeonummulites pristinus]LT64b
       |    `--O. venosusB-F08
       `--Nummulites Lamarck 1801B-F08, LT64b (see below for synonymy)
            |--*N. laevigatus (Bruguière 1792) (see below for synonymy)LT64b
            |--‘Operculina’ ammonea Leymerie 1846 [=*Frilla ammonea]LT64b
            |--‘Nautilus’ ammonoides Gronovius 1781LT64b [=*Neooperculinoides ammonoidesLT64b, Operculina ammonoidesLT64a]
            |--N. atacicusBG98
            |--N. aturicusB-F08
            |--N. beaumontiG92
            |--N. beneharnensisB-F08
            |--N. biarritzensisM12
            |--N. brongniartiM12
            |--‘Camerina’ budensisC40
            |--N. chawneri (Palmer 1934) [=Camerina chawneri, *Paraspiroclypeus chawneri]LT64b
            |--N. clypeusB-F08
            |--N. complanata Lamarck 1804 [=*Discospora complanata, Paronia complanata]LT64b
            |--N. curvispiraG92
            |--N. discorbinaG92
            |--‘Camerina’ elegansC40
            |--*Eoassilina’ elliptica Singh 1957LT64b
            |--N. fichteliG92
            |--*Phacites’ fossilis Blumenbach 1799LT64b
            |--N. gizehensisG92
            |--N. globulusB-F08
            |--N. hottangenM12
            |--N. intermediusB-F08
            |--N. lamarckiB-F08
            |--‘Nautilus’ lenticularis Fichtel & Moll 1798 [=*Guembelia lenticularis]LT64b
            |--*Lycophris lenticularis’ de Montfort 1808 non Nautilus lenticularis Fichtel & Moll 1798LT64b
            |--N. lyelliM12
            |--N. mamillaBG98
            |--N. millecaputB-F08
            |--N. orbiculatusH04
            |--N. perforatusB-F08
            |--N. planulatusO75
            |--N. pulchellusG92
            |--N. puschiM12
            |--N. somaliensisB-F08
            |--N. striatoreticulataLT64b
            |--N. striatusB-F08
            |--N. tchihatcheffi d’Archiac & Haime 1853 (see below for synonymy)LT64b
            |--‘Operculina (*Nummulitoides)’ tessieri Abrard 1956LT64b
            |--‘Camerina’ tuberculata Bruguière 1792 [=*Laharpia tuberculata]LT64b
            |--N. vascusB-F08
            |--N. venosusPH03
            `--+--N. crusafontiC-PR70
               `--+--N. biedaiC-PR70
                  `--N. puigsecensisC-PR70
Nummulitidae incertae sedis:
  Sulcoperculina Thalmann 1939LT64b
    `--*S. dickersoni (Palmer 1934)LT64b [=Camerina dickersoniC40, Operculina (*Sulcoperculina) dickersoniC40]
  Assilina d’Orbigny 1839B-F08
    |--*A. spira (de Roissy 1805) [=Nummulites spira]LT64b
    |--A. dandoticaBG98
    |--A. daviesiB-F08
    |--A. discoidalis d’Orbigny 1826C40
    |--A. granulosa (d’Archiac 1847)RB03 [=Operculina granulosaC40; incl. A. granulosa var. chhumbiensisB-F08]
    |--A. laxispiraBG98
    |--A. leymerieiB-F08
    |--A. mamillataB-F08
    |--A. spinosa Davies & Pinfold 1937RB03
    |--A. subdaviesiB-F08
    `--A. undataRB03
  Operculinoides Hanzawa 1935LT64b
    |--*O. wilcoxi (Heilprin 1883)LT64b [=Nummulites wilcoxiLT64b, Operculina wilcoxiC40]
    `--O. ocalanusB-F08
  Ranikothalia Caudri 1944LT64b
    |--*R. nuttalli (Daview 1927) [=Nummulites nuttalli]LT64b
    |--R. sahniiB-F08
    `--R. sindensisB-F08
  Planocamerinoides Cole 1958B-F08
    `--*P. exponens (de Sowerby in Sykes 1840)LT64b (see below for synonymy)

*Planocamerinoides exponens (de Sowerby in Sykes 1840)LT64b [=Nummularia exponensLT64b, Assilina exponensBG98, Nummulites exponensLT64b]

Nummulites Lamarck 1801 (nom. cons.)B-F08, LT64b [=Bruguieria Prever 1902LT64b, Camerina Brugière 1792LT64b, Cumerina (l. c.)LT64b, Nummularia Sowerby & Sowerby 1826 non Hill 1756 (ICBN)LT64b, Nummulina d’Orbigny 1826LT64b, Nummulita Fleming 1828LT64b; incl. Discospira Morris in Mantell 1850LT64b, Discospora (l. c.) non Arthur 1907 (ICBN)LT64b, Egeon Montfort 1808LT64b, Eoassilina Singh 1957LT64b, Frilla de Gregorio 1894LT64b, Guembelia Prever 1902 non Hampe 1846 (ICBN)LT64b, Hantkenia Prever 1902 non Munier-Chalmas in Fischer 1885LT64b, Helicites de Blainville 1824LT64b, Laharpia Prever 1902LT64b, Lycophris de Montfort 1808LT64b, Monetulites Ehrenberg 1855LT64b, Neooperculinoides Golev 1961LT64b, Nummulitoides Abrard 1956LT64b, Paraspiroclypeus Hanzawa 1937LT64b, Paronaea Prever 1902LT64b, Paronia Prever in Chelussi 1903 non Diamare 1900LT64b, Phacites Blumenbach 1799LT64b]

*Nummulites laevigatus (Bruguière 1792) [=*Camerina laevigata, *Nummularia laevigata, *Nummulina laevigata, *Nummulita laevigata]LT64b

Nummulites tchihatcheffi d’Archiac & Haime 1853 [=*Hantkenia tchihatcheffi, *Paronaea tchihatcheffi, *Paronia tchihatcheffi]LT64b

Operculinella Yabe 1918B-F08 [=Pseudonummulites Silvestri 1937LT64b, Verbeekia Silvestri 1908 non Fritsch 1877LT64b; incl. Palaeonummulites Schubert 1908 (n. o.)B-F08, LT64b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[BG98] Bajpai, S., & P. D. Gingerich. 1998. A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95: 15464–15468.

[B-F08] BouDagher-Fadel, M. K. 2008. The Cenozoic larger benthic foraminifera: the Palaeogene. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 21: 297–418.

[C-PR70] Crusafont-Pairó, M., & S. Reguant. 1970. The nomenclature of intermediate forms. Systematic Zoology 19 (3): 254–257.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G92] Gingerich, P. D. 1992. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: Stratigraphy, age, and paleoenvironments. University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 30: i–ix, 1–84.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[LT64a] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964a. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LT64b] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964b. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M12] McGowran, B. 2012. Cenozoic environmental shifts and foraminiferal evolution. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 937–965. Springer.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695–716.

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