Giant waterlily Victoria cruziana, from here.

Belongs within: Angiospermae.

The Nymphaeales include the waterlilies, aquatic flowering plants with surface-floating leaves (though the genus Cabomba produces both submerged and floating leaves). Recent phylogenetic analyses of flowering plants indicate that the Nymphaeales form one of the most basal branches within this group, and definitive fossil representatives date back to the Upper Cretaceous (Gandolfo et al. 2004). Recent phylogenetic analyses have also associated the Hydatellaceae, tiny sedge-like aquatic plants, with this clade (Saarela et al. 2007).

<==Nymphaeales [Nymphaeanae]
|--Hydatellaceae [Hydatellales, Hydatellanae]SR07
| |--Hydatella Diels in Diels & Pritzel 1904C87
| | |--*H. australis Diels in Diels & Pritzel 1904ME70, C87
| | |--H. dioica Cook 1983C87
| | |--H. filamentosa (Rodway) Curtis in Morris & Curtis 1974 [=Trithuria filamentosa Rodway 1898]MC74
| | |--H. inconspicua (Cheeseman) Cheeseman 1907 [=Trithuria inconspicua Cheeseman 1906]ME70
| | `--H. leptogyne Diels in Diels & Pritzel 1904C87
| `--Trithuria Hook. 1858 [=Juncella Mueller ex Hieronymus in Engler & Prantl 1887]C87
| |--*T. submersa Hook. 1858C87 (see below for synonymy)
| |--T. bibracteata Stapf ex Cooke 1983C87
| `--T. lanterna Cooke 1981C87
`--+--Cabombaceae [Hydropeltidales]SR07
| |--Braseniella nymphaeoides (Dorofeev) Dorofeev 1973CBH93
| |--Dusembaya turgaica (Dorofeev) Dorofeev 1973CBH93
| |--Cabomba [Cabomboideae]GNC04
| | `--C. carolinianaH90
| `--Brasenia [Hydropeltoideae]GNC04
| `--B. schreberiSR07
| i. s.: Nymphaeites rhoenensisS02
| Nelumbium luteumC55, D59
| Braseniopsis venulosa Saporta 1893CBH93
| SabreniaCBH93
| PalaeonymphaeaCBH93
| ZonosulcitesCBH93
| |--Z. parvus Srivastava 1969CBH93
| `--Z. scollardensis Srivastava 1969CBH93
|--Nuphar [Nupharoideae]GNC04
| |--N. advenaSR07
| |--N. luteaSR07
| |--N. polysepalumWF02 [=Nuphar luteum var. polysepalumH93, Nymphaea polysepalaH93]
| `--N. variegataDS04
`--+--HydrostemmaC95 [Barclayaceae, BarclayoideaeGNC04]
| `--H. motleyi (Hooker) Mabberley 1982 (see below for synonymy)C95
`--+--Microvictoria Nixon, Gandolfo & Crepet in Gandolfo, Nixon & Crepet 2004GNC04
| `--*M. svitkoana Nixon, Gandolfo & Crepet in Gandolfo, Nixon & Crepet 2004GNC04
| |--Victoria cruzianaGNC04, DS04
| `--Euryale feroxJ89
|--N. albaBBO01
|--N. amplaC55
|--N. capensisP88
|--N. elleniae Jacobs 1992C95
|--N. giganteaC95
|--N. hastifoliaLK14
|--N. immutabilis Jacobs 1992C95
|--N. lotusP88
|--N. macrosperma Merr. & Perry 1942 [incl. N. dictyophlebia Merr. & Perry 1942]C95
|--N. mexicanaH93
|--N. nouchali Burm. f. 1768C95
|--N. odorata Aiton 1789CD07
|--N. ondineaLK14
| |--N. o. ssp. ondineaLK14
| `--N. o. ssp. petaloideaLK14
|--N. pubescens Willdenow 1797C95
|--N. stellataP88
`--N. violacea Lehn. 1843 [=N. gigantea var. violacea (Lehn.) Conard 1905]C95

Hydrostemma motleyi (Hooker) Mabberley 1982 [=Barclaya motleyi Hooker 1860; incl. B. motleyi f. membranacea Royen 1962]C95

*Trithuria submersa Hook. 1858C87 [=*Juncella submersa (Hook.) Hieron. in Engler & Prantl 1887C87; incl. T. occidentalis Benth. 1878C87, J. occidentalis (Benth.) Hieron. in Engler & Prantl 1887C87, J. tasmanica Mueller 1854 (n. n.)B78, ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798–810.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Nymphaeaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 192–202. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[C87] Cooke, D. A. 1987. Hydatellaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 1–5.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[GNC04] Gandolfo, M. A., K. C. Nixon & W. L. Crepet. 2004. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (21): 8056–8060.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J89] Jacoby, M. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVII.—List of the phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Signor L. Fea at Burmah and Tenasserim, with descriptions of the new species. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 147–237.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MC74] Morris, D. I., & W. M. Curtis. 1974. Recent additions to the Tasmanian flora and some notes on nomenclature. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum 50: 1–5.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WF02] Williams, J. H., & W. E. Friedman. 2002. Identification of diploid endosperm in an early angiosperm lineage. Nature 415: 522–526.

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