Obtectomera

Twenty-plume moth Orneodes hexadactyla, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Copromorphoidea, Pyraloidea, Macroheterocera, Gelechioidea, Thyrididae, Alucitoidea, Pterophoridae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Riodinidae, Lycaenidae.

The Obtectomera are a clade of Lepidoptera united in its circumscription below by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kawahara et al. 2019). Historically, the clade has been characterised by pupae with abdominal segments 1–4 immobile and without a dorsal row of spines on the tergites (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). However, Obtectomera in this sense may not be monophyletic.

Representatives of the Obtectomera include the Calliduloidea, a small group of diurnal moths with simple antennae and wings held back to back at rest, resembling small butterflies (Common 1970). Members of the superfamilies Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea, plume moths, often have the fore and hind wings deeply cleft into multiple plumes. Pterophoroidea usually possess vein CuP in the fore wing whereas this vein is absent in Alucitoidea (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Mimallonidae are stout-bodied moths found in the Americas whose larvae construct suspended protective cases using the leaves of their food plants (Richards & Davies 1977). The Hyblaeidae are a small family of medium-sized moths with beak-like labial palps and lacking tympanal organs found in Indo-Australia and the Neotropics (Nielsen & Common 1991).

The Papilionoidea, butterflies and skippers, are diurnal Lepidoptera with a pouch on abdominal tergite 1 that lay eggs upright and have a girdle around the pupa (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The butterflies and most skippers are the best known of the day-flying Lepidoptera. However, members of the small Neotropical family Hedylidae are nocturnal. Hedylids have slender bodies and long wings, and fold the fore legs under the thorax when walking (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Obtectomera [Bombycina, Bombycites, Macrolepidoptera, Pyralidina]KP19
    |  i. s.: HyblaeaIR05 [Hyblaeidae, HyblaeoideaNC91]
    |           |--H. ibidiasNC91
    |           `--H. pleuraIR05
    |         CopromorphoideaGE05
    |         WhalleyaniidaeGE05
    |         Cypra delicatula [incl. Cozistra membranacea]M86
    |         ArtaxaM86
    |           |--A. luteaM86
    |           `--A. paraneura Meyrick 1886M86
    |--+--+--PyraloideaKP19
    |  |  `--+--MacroheteroceraKP19
    |  |     `--Mimallonidae [Lacosomidae, Mimallonoidea]KP19
    |  |          |--Bedosia strigifera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Perophora strigifera]NSp07
    |  |          |--Lacosoma chiridotaKP19
    |  |          |--Menevia lantonaKP19
    |  |          `--CicinnusNSp07
    |  |               |--C. despecta (Walker 1855) [incl. Perophora sanguinolenta Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
    |  |               `--C. melsheimeriP27
    |  `--+--GelechioideaKP19
    |     `--+--+--ThyrididaeKP19
    |        |  `--CalliduloideaKP19
    |        |       |--Pterothysanus [Pterothysanidae]RD77
    |        |       `--CallidulidaeKP19
    |        |            |--Cleis scottiC70
    |        |            `--Pterodecta [Callidulinae]KP19
    |        |                 `--P. felderiKP19
    |        `--+--AlucitoideaKP19
    |           `--Pterophoroidea [Pterophorii]GE05
    |                |--PterophoridaeGE05
    |                `--Orneodes Latreille 1802L02 [OrneodidaeP27]
    |                     |--*O. hexadactyla (Linnaeus 1758)L02, RD77, L58 (see below for synonymy)
    |                     |--O. objurgatellaB88
    |                     |--O. phricodesP27
    |                     `--O. pygmaeaRD77
    `--Papilionoidea [Papilionides, Rhopalocera]KP19
         |  i. s.: Thanatites vetulaGE05
         |         CoradesB66a
         |           |--C. cybele Butler 1866B66a
         |           `--C. sarebaB66a
         |         DaedelmaB66a
         |           |--D. doraeteB66a
         |           `--D. emilia Butler 1866B66a
         |         DebisB66a
         |           |--D. chandicaB66a
         |           |--D. europaWM66
         |           |--‘Papilio’ halyma Fabricius 1793 [=Neonympha halyma, Satyrus halyma]B66b
         |           |--D. isabella Butler 1866B66a
         |           `--D. portlandiaB66b
         |         HetaeraB66a
         |           |--H. aurora [incl. H. andromeda]B66a
         |           |--H. esmeraldaB66a
         |           |--H. harpalyce Butler 1866B66a
         |           |--H. pellucida Butler 1866B66a
         |           |--H. philisB66a
         |           `--H. piretaB66a
         |         CallidryasWM66
         |           |--C. alcmeoneWM66
         |           |--C. pyrantheWM66
         |           `--C. scyllaR13
         |         Messaris erymanthusWM66
         |         DiademaWM66
         |           |--D. augeWM66
         |           |--D. bolinaWM66
         |           `--D. dexitheaOb90
         |         Hestina assimilisWM66
         |           |--H. a. assimilisIw92
         |           `--H. a. shirakii Shirôzu 1955Iw92
         |         Athyma leucothoeWM66
         |         ErgolisWM66
         |           |--E. corytaWM66
         |           `--E. merioneA73
         |         Cyllo ledaWM66
         |         Pterygospidea folus [incl. P. cicero]WM66
         |         Chionobas bore [incl. Papilio polixenes Fabricius 1793, Neonympha polixenes]B66b
         |         Enodia creolaC37
         |         Amblyscirtes carolinaC37
         |         Sarangesa eliminataB01
         |         Argyrophenga antipodumP27
         |         ArchaepreponaGE05
         |         Heraclides cresphontesIm92
         |         EricinaG20
         |           |--E. cupidoG20
         |           `--E. lysippusG20
         |         Telchinia violae [=Acraea violae]A73
         |         Chilasa clytia [incl. C. clytia f. dissimilis]A73
         |         Ixias pyreneA73
         |         Stallingsia maculosaEN20
         |         Aegiale hesperiarisEN20
         |         Meneris tulbaghia [=Aeropetes tulbaghia]EN20
         |         ParnassusR26
         |           |--P. apolloR26
         |           `--P. mnemosyneR26
         |         Zeritis disciferaOl90
         |         Ialmenus evagorasOl90
         |         Telesto drachmophoraOl90
         |--PapilionidaeKP19
         `--+--+--HesperiidaeKP19
            |  `--Hedylidae [Hedyloidea]GE05
            |       |--Hedyle Guenée 1857BR05
            |       `--Macrosoma hedylariaKP19, GE05
            `--+--PieridaeKP19
               `--+--NymphalidaeV-W04
                  `--+--RiodinidaeV-W04
                     `--LycaenidaeV-W04

*Orneodes hexadactyla (Linnaeus 1758)L02, RD77, L58 [=Phalaena (Alucita) hexadactylaL58, H04, Pterophorus hexadactylusL02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A73] Ashton, R. 1973. Butterflies of New Delhi (Papilionoidea). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 502–509.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Descriptions of some new exotic butterflies in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 39–42.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes on their affinities &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 458–504.

[B01] Butler, A. G. 1901. On a collection of butterflies from the Uganda Protectorate, forwarded by C. Steuart Betton, Esq., in 1900. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 562.

[C37] Clark, A. H. 1937. The butterflies of Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 116.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[IR05] Idris, A. B., & A. Rizki. 2005. Notes on the tribe Ephialtini (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) of Malaysia. Serangga 10 (1–2): 111–126.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Meyrick, E. 1886. On some Lepidoptera from the Fly River. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 241–258.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[Ob90] Oberthür, C. 1890. Note suivante. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxli–ccxlii.

[Ol90] Olliff, A. S. 1890. On Rhopalocera from Mt. Kosciusko, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (3): 619–624.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[V-W04] Vane-Wright, D. 2004. Butterflies at that awkward age. Nature 428: 477–480.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *