Odocoileini

 White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus goudotii, photographed by Petruss.

Belongs within: Cervidae.

The Odocoileini includes the endemic New World genera of deer, together with the reindeer Rangifer tarandus. Monophyly of the group is supported by molecular data, and by the presence of a vomerine septum dividing the choana into two chambers (Gilbert et al. 2006). The brockets Mazama and pudus Pudu are small deer with the antlers as simple spikes only; the remaining genera have the antlers branched. The reindeer or caribou Rangifer tarandus is found in boreal regions of both Eurasia and North America; it is the only deer species in which both males and females grow antlers. The genus Odocoileus, found over a large part of both North and South America, includes the mule deer O. hemionus and the white-tailed deer O. virginianus. Mature male mule deer have dichotomously branching antlers whereas white-tailed deer have tines branching vertically from a curved main beam.

<==Odocoileini [Elaphelcedae, Mazamadae, Mazaminae]
    |  i. s.: PavlodariaGRH06
    |         BretziaGRH06
    |         EocoileusGRH06
    |         EpieurycerosGRH06
    |         ‘Cervus’ mangivorus Schrank 1819 (n. d.)H48
    |--+--+--Agalmoceros blickiFS15
    |  |  `--MorenelaphusFS15
    |  |       |--M. brachycerosFS15
    |  |       `--M. lujanensisFS15
    |  `--Rangifer Smith in Griffith, Smith & Pidgeon 1827GRH06 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--*R. tarandus (Linnaeus 1758)B61 (see below for synonymy)
    |            |--R. group Compressicornis Jacobi 1931B61
    |            |    |--+--R. t. constantini Flerov 1934B61
    |            |    |  `--R. t. fennicus Lonnberg 1909 (see below for synonymy)B61
    |            |    `--+--R. t. caribou (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy)B61
    |            |       |--R. t. dawsoni Seton-Thompson 1900 [=R. arcticus dawsoni, Tarandus rangifer dawsoni]B61
    |            |       `--R. t. fricki Schultz & Howard 1935B61
    |            `--R. group Cylindricornis Jacobi 1931B61
    |                 |--+--R. t. eogroenlandicus Degerbøl 1957B61
    |                 |  `--R. t. pearyi Allen 1902B61
    |                 |--+--R. t. guettardi (Desmarest 1822) (see below for synonymy)B61
    |                 |  `--+--R. t. tarandus (see below for synonymy)B61
    |                 |     `--R. t. platyrhynchus (Vrolik 1829) (see below for synonymy)B61
    |                 `--+--R. t. granti Allen 1902 (see below for synonymy)B61
    |                    |--R. t. groenlandicus (Linnaeus 1767) (see below for synonymy)B61
    |                    `--R. t. muscatinensis Leidy 1879B61
    `--+--+--Pudu Gray 1852FS15, GRH06
       |  |    |--P. mephistophilesIT07
       |  |    `--P. puda (Molina 1782) [=Capra puda]G00
       |  `--+--+--‘Mazama’ gouazoubira (Fischer 1814)FS15, G00 [=Cervus gouazoupiraG00]
       |     |  `--‘Mazama’ nemorivagaFS15
       |     `--+--Blastocerus Gray 1850FS15, GRH06 [=Blastoceros Fitzinger 1860G00]
       |        |    `--B. dichotomus (Illiger 1811)G00 (see below for synonymy)
       |        `--+--Ozotoceros Ameghino 1891FS15, GRH06
       |           |    `--O. bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758)G00 (see below for synonymy)
       |           |         |--O. b. bezoarticusH48
       |           |         |--O. b. celerBP87
       |           |         `--O. b. leucogasterH48
       |           `--Hippocamelus Leuckart 1816FS15, GRH06
       |                |--H. bisulcus (Molina 1782) [=Equus bisulcus; incl. *H. dubius Leuckart 1816]G00
       |                `--H. antisensisGRH06
       `--+--+--Sangamona fugitivaFS15
          |  `--+--Antifer Ameghino 1899FS15, B61
          |     |    `--A. ultraFS15
          |     `--Mazama Rafinesque 1817GRH06 [incl. Subulo Hamilton Smith 1827G00]
          |          |  i. s.: M. permiraN10
          |          |--+--M. chunyi Hershkovitz 1959FS15, N10
          |          |  `--M. rufinaFS15
          |          `--+--+--M. bororoFS15
          |             |  `--M. nanaFS15
          |             `--+--M. briceniiFS15
          |                `--+--M. temamaFS15 [=M. americana temamaG69]
          |                   `--+--M. americana (Erxleben 1777)FS15, G00 (see below for synonymy)
          |                      `--M. pandoraFS15
          `--+--Paraceros fragilisFS15
             `--+--Navahoceros frickiFS15
                `--Odocoileus Rafinesque 1832GRH06 (see below for synonymy)
                     |--*O. spelaeusH48
                     |--O. hemionus (Rafinesque 1817)B75 (see below for synonymy)
                     |    |--O. h. hemionusMB86
                     |    |--O. h. cerrosensisBP87
                     |    |--O. h. columbianus (Richardson 1829) [=Cervus columbianus, Eucervus columbianus]G00
                     |    |--O. h. crooki (Mearns 1897)MB86
                     |    `--O. h. sitkensisGD93
                     `--O. virginianus (Zimmerman 1780)H48 (see below for synonymy)
                          |--O. v. virginianusH48
                          |--O. v. acapulcensisG69
                          |--O. v. cariacou (Boddaert 1784)G00 (see below for synonymy)
                          |--O. v. claviumBP87
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ consul Lönnberg 1922H48
                          |--O. v. couesi (Coues & Yarrow 1875)MB86
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ curassavicus Hummelinck 1940H48
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ goudotii Gay & Gervais 1846 [incl. D. columbicus]H48
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ gymnotis (see below for synonymy)H48
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ lasiotis Osgood 1914H48
                          |--O. v. leucurusBP87
                          |--O. v. macrourus (Rafinesque 1817) [=Corvus (l. c. for Cervus) macrourus]B75
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ margaritae Osgood 1910H48
                          |--O. v. mexicanus (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy)G00
                          |--O. v. miquihuananensisMB86
                          |--O. v. oaxacensisG69
                          |--‘Dama virginiana’ peruviana Gray 1874 [incl. D. brachyceros, D. philippii]H48
                          |--O. v. thomasiG69
                          |--O. v. toltecusG69
                          `--‘Dama virginiana’ tropicalis Cabrera 1918H48
Inorganic: Mazama americana minilorientalis Okamura 1987O87

Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger 1811)G00 [=Dorcelaphus dichotomusG00, Elaphus (Dorcelaphus) dichotomaG00; incl. Cervus paludosus Desmarest 1822G00, Blastoceros paludosusG00, *Blastocerus paludosusG00, Odocoileus paludosusO05]

‘Dama virginiana’ gymnotis [incl. Cervus savannarum Cabanis in Schomburgk 1848, Mazama tumatumari, Dama wiegmanni]H48

Mazama americana (Erxleben 1777)FS15, G00 [=Moschus americanusG00; incl. Cervus rufus Illiger 1811G00, *Subulo rufusG00]

Odocoileus Rafinesque 1832GRH06 [=OdocoelusH48, OdontocoelusH48; incl. Dama Zimmermann 1780 non Frisch 1775H48, Dorcelaphus Gloger 1841G00, Elaphalces Brookes 1828 (n. o.)G00, Elephalces (l. c.)G00, Eucervus Gray 1866G00, Mazama Hamilton Smith 1827 non Rafinesque 1817G00, Subulus Brookes 1828 (n. o.)G00; Subulidae]

Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque 1817)B75 [=Cervus hemionusB75; incl. C. macrotis Say 1823G00, *Eucervus macrotisG00, C. macrotis var. montanus Caton 1881G00]

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman 1780)H48 [=Cervus virginianusG00, *Dama virginianaH48, *Dorcelaphus virginianusG00, Mazama virginianaG00; incl. Cervus americanus Erxleben 1777 (nom. rej.) non Clinton 1822G00, Mazama americana non Moschus americanus Erxleben 1777G00, Subulus americanusG00]

Odocoileus virginianus cariacou (Boddaert 1784)G00 [=Capreolus cariacouH48, Cervus cariacou Kerr 1792H48, Dama virginiana cariacouH48; incl. Ce. campestris Cuvier 1817G00, Ce. spinosus Gay & Gervais 1846G00, Subulus spinosusG00, Ce. sylvaticus Kerr 1792H48]

Odocoileus virginianus mexicanus (Gmelin 1788) [=Cervus mexicanus, *Elaphalces mexicanus, Elephalces (l. c.) mexicanus]G00

Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus 1758)G00 [incl. Blastoceros azaraeG00, Cervus campestris Wied 1826 non Cuvier 1817G00, Blastoceros campestrisG00, Blastocerus campestrisG00, Dorcelaphus campestrisG00, Odocoileus campestrisO05, *Ozotoceros campestrisG00, Blastoceros comosaG00]

Rangifer Smith in Griffith, Smith & Pidgeon 1827GRH06 [incl. Achlis Reichenbach 1845B61, Procerus de Serres 1838 non Megerle 1821G00, Procervus Blainville 1840B61, Tarandus Billberg 1827B61; Rangerinae, Rangiferinae, Rangiferini, Rangiferinidae]

*Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus 1758)B61 [=Cervus tarandusB61; incl. Tarandus borealis Ruppell 1842B61, *Procerus cariboeus de Serres 1838G00, *Procervus cariboeusG00, T. lapponum Billberg 1827B61]

Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin 1788) [=Cervus tarandus caribou; incl. R. arcticus caboti Allen 1914, R. tarandus caboti, R. arcticus fortidens Hollister 1912, R. tarandus fortidens, Cervus hastalis Agassiz 1847, Tarandus rangifer keewatinensis Millais 1915, T. rangifer labradorensis Millais 1915, Rangifer mcguirei Figgins 1919, R. arcticus montanus Seton-Thompson 1899, R. tarandus montanus, Tarandus rangifer ogilvyensis Millais 1915, R. arcticus osborni Allen 1902, R. tarandus osborni, R. montanus selousi Barclay 1935, R. arcticus stonei Allen 1901, R. tarandus stonei, R. tarandus var. sylvestris Richardson 1829, R. caribou sylvestris, R. caribou terraenovae Bangs 1896, R. tarandus terraenovae]B61

Rangifer tarandus fennicus Lonnberg 1909 [incl. R. tarandus angustirostris Flerov 1932, Tarandus rangifer buskensis Millais 1915, T. rangifer chukchensis Millais 1915, Rangifer tarandus dichotomus Hilzheimer 1936, R. tarandus phylarchus Hollister 1912, R. tarandus setoni Flerov 1933, R. tarandus silvicola Hilzheimer 1936, R. tarandus transuralensis Hilzheimer 1936, R. tarandus valentinae Flerov 1933, Tarandus rangifer yakutskensis Millais 1915]B61

Rangifer tarandus granti Allen 1902 [=R. arcticus granti, Tarandus rangifer granti; incl. R. excelsifrons Hollister 1912]B61

Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Capra groenlandica, Cervus tarandus groenlandicus, Ce. gronlandicus; incl. Rangifer tarandus var. arctica Richardson 1829, R. tarandus arcticus]B61

Rangifer tarandus guettardi (Desmarest 1822) [=Cervus guettardi; incl. C. bucklandi Owen 1846, C. destrenii Serres 1835, C. tarandus diluvii Rutten 1909, Rangifer tarandus hibernicus Scharff 1918, C. leptocerus Eichwald 1835, C. leufroyi Serres 1835, C. martialis Gervais 1852, Tarandus priscus Sternberg 1828, C. priscus, C. rebulii Serres 1835, Tarandus schottini Sternberg 1828, C. tournalii Serres 1835]B61

Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus (Vrolik 1829) [=Cervus (Tarandus) platyrhynchus; incl. C. tarandus f. spetsbergensis Andersén 1863, Rangifer arcticus var. spitzbergensis, R. tarandus spetsbergensis]B61

*Rangifer tarandus tarandus (Linnaeus 1758) [=R. tarandus typicus Lydekker 1898; incl. Tarandus rangifer asiaticus Millais 1915, R. arcticus asiaticus, R. tarandus var. cilindricornis Camerano 1902, Tarandus rangifer lenensis Millais 1915, R. tarandus pearsoni Lydekker 1903, Cervus tarandus rangifer Gmelin 1788, Tarandus rangifer, C. sibiricus Schreber 1784 (nom. inv.) non C. elaphus sibiricus Severtzov 1872, T. rangifer sibiricus]B61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B61] Banfield, A. W. F. 1961. A revision of the reindeer and caribou, genus Rangifer. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 177: i–vi, 1–137.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[GD93] Garland, T., Jr, A. W. Dickerman, C. M. Janis & J. A. Jones. 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of covariance by computer simulation. Systematic Biology 42 (3): 265–292.

[GRH06] Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 101–117.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G00] Grubb, P. 2000. Valid and invalid nomenclature of living and fossil deer, Cervidae. Acta Theriologica 45 (3): 289–307.

[H48] Hershkovitz, P. 1948. The technical name of the Virginia deer with a list of the South American forms. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 61: 41–45.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[O05] Outes, F. F. 1905. Sobre un instrumento paleolítico de Luján (Provincia de Buenos Aires). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 169–173.

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