Oonopidae

 Orchestina sp., copyright Matias A. Izquierdo.

Belongs within: Basalhaplogynae.

The Oonopidae, goblin spiders, are a family of very small ground-hunting spiders, most diverse in tropical regions. Their six eyes (if present) are grouped close together with the anterior eyes large. In members of the subfamily Gamasomorphinae, the abdomen is covered by hardened dorsal and ventral scuta (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dipppenaar-Schoeman 2007): Very small; six eyes present, grouped close together, or eyes absent; legs with two claws, biserially dentate on an onychium; abdomen often with dorsal and ventral scuta; posterior tracheae anteriorly positioned; ecribellate; haplogyne, female genitalia a sclerotised slit composed of two distinct elements associated with both anterior and posterior walls of bursa.

<==Oonopidae
    |--Gamasomorpha [Gamasomorphinae]JD-S07
    |    `--G. camellinaJD-S07
    |--Oonops Templeton 1935 [Oonopinae]JD-S07
    |    |--O. domesticus de Dalmas 1916BH02
    |    `--O. pulcher Templeton 1935MG03
    `--OrchestininaeW19
         |--Burmochestina Wunderlich 2008W19
         `--Orchestina Simon 1882FB08
              |--O. baltica Petrunkevitch 1942S93
              |--O. dubiaV09
              `--O. mortua Petrunkevitch 1971P92
Oonopidae incertae sedis:
  DysderinaC90
  Opopaea Simon 1891FB08
  BrignoliaL-M-HM11
  CoxapophaL-M-HM11
  NeoxyphinusL-M-HM11
  XyccarphL-M-HM11
  Pelicinus Simon 1891OH08b
    |--*P. marmoratus Simon 1891OH08b
    |--P. mahei (Benoit 1979)OH08b
    |--P. saaristoi Ott & Harvey 2008T13
    `--P. vernalis (Bryant 1945)OH08b
  GrymeusMC13
  Myrmopopaea Reimoser 1933OH08b
    `--M. jacobsoni Reimoser 1933OH08b
  Kapitia Forster 1956PVD10
    `--*K. obscura Forster 1956PVD10
  Silhouettella Benoit 1979MG03
    `--S. loricatula (Roewer 1942) [=Dysderina loricatula, Gamasomorpha loricatula]MG03
  Ischnothyreus Simon 1893 [=Ischnaspis Simon 1891 non Douglas 1887]EH09
    |--*I. peltifer (Simon 1891) [=*Ischnaspis peltifer]EH09
    `--I. darwini Edward & Harvey 2009EH09
  ‘Pounamua’ Forster 1956 non Oliver 1949F64
    |--P. australis Forster 1964F64
    |--P. complexa Forster 1956NS00
    `--P. gressitti Forster 1964F64
  Cavisternum clavatum Baehr, Harvey & Smith 2010DH10
  Xestaspis Simon 1884OH08a
    |--*X. loricata (Koch 1873) [=Oonops loricatus]OH08a
    |--X. inconspicuaMC13
    |--X. linnaei Ott & Harvey 2008OH08a
    |--X. nitida Simon 1884OH08a
    |--X. parumpunctata Simon 1893OH08a
    |--X. recurva Strand 1906OH08a
    |--X. reimoseri Fage 1938OH08a
    |--X. sertata Simon 1907OH08a
    |--X. sis Saaristo & van Harten 2006OH08a
    |--X. sublaevis Simon 1893OH08a
    |--X. tumidula Simon 1893OH08a
    `--X. yemeni Saaristo & van Harten 2006OH08a
  FossilopaeaP92
  HeteroonopsP92
  Farqua Saaristo 2001OH08b
  Lionneta Benoit 1979OH08b
Nomen nudum: Oonops hasselti Strand 1906S06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288–297.

[C90] Coddington, J. A. 1990. Book review: Advances in spider taxonomy 1981–1987: A supplement to Brignoli’s A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981 (edited by P. Merrett), by Norman I. Platnick. Journal of Arachnology 18: 245–248.

[DH10] Durrant, B. J., M. S. Harvey, V. W. Framenau, R. Ott & J. M. Waldock. 2010. Patterns in the composition of ground-dwelling spider communities in the Pilbara bioregion, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 185–204.

[EH09] Edward, K. L., & M. S. Harvey. 2009. A new species of Ischnothyreus (Araneae:Oonopidae) from monsoon rainforest of northern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 287–293.

[FB08] Fannes, W., D. De Bakker, K. Loosveldt & R. Jocqué. 2008. Estimating the diversity of arboreal oonopid spider assemblages (Araneae, Oonopidae) at Afrotropical sites. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 322–330.

[F64] Forster, R. R. 1964. The Araneae and Opiliones of the subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Pacific Insects Monograph 7: 58–115.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[OH08a] Ott, R., & M. S. Harvey. 2008a. A new species of Xestaspis (Araneae: Oonopidae) from the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 337–342.

[OH08b] Ott, R., & M. S. Harvey. 2008b. A new species of Pelicinus from Barrow Island, Western Australia (Araneae: Oonopidae). Arthropoda Selecta 17 (1–2): 81–85.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[W19] Wunderlich, J. 2019. What is a spider? Cretaceous fossils modify strongly phylogenetics as well as diagnoses of families, superfamilies and even suborders of spiders (Araneida) and other arthropods. Beiträge zur Araneologie 12: 1–32.

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