Opatrini

Opatrum sabulosum, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.

Belongs within: Tenebrionidae.
Contains: Gonocephalum, Mesomorphus.

The Opatrini are a tribe of tenebrionid beetles found in arid and sandy regions of Africa, southern Asia and Australia (Matthews & Bouchard 2008).

Characters (from Matthews & Bouchard 2008): Oblong-oval, moderately to strongly convex, fuscous or piceous. Total length 4–11 mm. Antennae not clavate, slightly and gradually expanded distally, with simple setiform sensilla only. Edge of clypeus deeply excised in middle. Labrum subquadrate, tormal arms with mesal extremities bent into both anterior and posterior extensions, setal pattern symmetrical, epitorma absent. Lacinia with uncus or stout bristle. Mandibular mola without fine striations. Eyes reniform or completely divided. Corpotentorium present, not arched. Procoxal cavities internally closed. Mesocoxal cavities partly closed by mesepimera. Elytra striate, with incomplete epipleura. Metendosternite with laminae except in flightless genera. Legs fossorial, usually with expanded and more or less toothed protibiae. Plantar surfaces bristled. Abdomen with defensive gland reservoirs long with constricted openings, without common volume, without reinforcing sclerites or prongs. Ovipositor relatively unmodified , with paraproct baculi longitudinal, coxite baculi transverse, coxite lobation complete and gonostyles free, or greatly shortened with paraproct baculi transverse, paraprocts sometimes rotated distad and partially enveloping coxite bases, coxite baculi oblique, coxite lobes fused, and gonostyles vestigial or absent. Female tract with single coiled bursa-derived spermatheca and filiform accessory gland, or with apparently primary bursa copulatrix and without spermatheca. Aedeagus with paramere-like clavae attached to apical piece distally and separated from it by complete suture, or partial suture, or completely or almost completely fused with apical piece.

<==Opatrini
    |--Heterocheirina [Heterocheirini]MB08
    |    |--Heterocheira Dejean 1836 [=Heterochira Agassiz 1846]MB08
    |    |    |--*H. australis (Boisduval 1835) [=Uloma australis]MB08
    |    |    `--H. tropica Carter 1924MB08
    |    |--Scymena Pascoe 1866MB08
    |    |    |--*S. variabilis Pascoe 1866MB08
    |    |    `--S. amphibia Pascoe 1870 [incl. S. australis Blackburn 1888]MB08
    |    `--Diphyrrhynchus Fairmaire 1849 [=Diphyrhynchus]MB08
    |         |--*D. (Diphyrrhynchus) chalceus Fairmaire 1849 [=*Diphyrhynchus chalceus]MB08
    |         `--D. (Neoabantis Gebien 1910)MB08
    |              |--D. (*N.) aenescens (Fairmaire 1892) [=Abantis aenescens, *Abantiades aenescens]MB08
    |              |--D. (N.) ellipticus Champion 1894MB08
    |              `--D. (N.) nicobaricus Redtenbacher 1868 [incl. D. apicalis Champion 1894]MB08
    `--OpatrinaMB08
         |--GonocephalumMB08
         |--MesomorphusMB08
         |--Caediomorpha Blackburn 1888MB08
         |    `--C. heteromera (King 1869) [=Morychus heteromerus; incl. *C. australis Blackburn 1888]MB08
         |--Sobas Pascoe 1863 [=Trigonotarsus Hope 1843 non Guérin-Méneville 1834; incl. Pseudocaedius Blackburn 1890]MB08
         |    |--*S. australis (Hope 1843) [=*Trigonotarsus australis; incl. *Pseudocaedius squamosus Blackburn 1890]MB08
         |    `--S. minor Carter 1937MB08
         |--Caedius Blanchard 1845 [=Coedius]MB08
         |    |--*C. sphaeroides (Hope 1842) [=Opatrum sphaeroides; incl. C. tuberculatus Carter 1914]MB08
         |    |--C. demarzi Kulzer 1964MB08
         |    |--C. granulatus Kulzer 1964MB08
         |    |--C. himalayensis Kaszab 1942K77
         |    |--C. indicusK77
         |    |--C. lindi Blackburn 1888MB08
         |    `--C. obesus Kulzer 1964MB08
         `--OpatrumC01
              |--O. algiricum Lucas 1847E12
              |--O. complanatumB35
              |--O. emarginatum Lucas 1847E12
              |--O. granuliferum Lucas 1847E12
              |--O. lilliputanum Lucas 1846E12
              |--O. parvulum Lucas 1847E12
              |--O. perplexum Lucas 1847E12
              |--O. pulchellum Lucas 1846E12
              |--O. rufipes Bosc 1802B02
              |--O. sabulosumC01
              |--O. seriatum Boisduval 1835B35
              |--O. subauratumC01
              `--O. tibialeR26

Opatrini incertae sedis:
  Ammidium Erichson 1843MB08, AT02
    `--A. ciliatum Erichson 1843 [incl. Ecripsis pubescens Pascoe 1866]MB08
  Aconobius Casey 1895AT02
  Ammodonus Mulsant & Rey 1859 [incl. Pseudonomus Fairmaire 1884, Scaptes Champion 1886]AT02
    `--A. fossorAT02
  Blapstinus Sturm 1826 (see below for synonymy)AT02
    |--‘Pedonoeces’ bauriPP72
    |--B. discolorAT02
    `--B. opacus Muls. 1859FS90 [=Pedonoeces opacusPP72]
  Conibiosoma Casey 1890AT02
    `--C. elongatum Horn 1870AT02
  Conibius LeConte 1851 [incl. Euconibius Casey 1895, Ooconibius Casey 1895]AT02
  Cybotus Casey 1890AT02
    `--C. estriatus LeConte 1878AT02
  Ephalus LeConte 1862AT02
    `--E. latimanus (LeConte 1854)AT02
  Mecysmus Horn 1870AT02
  Nocibiotes Casey 1895AT02
  Notibius LeConte 1851AT02
  Pseudephalus Casey 1924AT02
    `--P. brevicornis Casey 1924AT02
  Tonibius Casey 1895AT02
    `--T. sulcatus LeConte 1851AT02
  Trichoton Hope 1840AT02
    `--T. sordidum (LeConte 1851)AT02
  Ulus Horn 1870AT02
    |--U. crassusAT02
    `--U. squamulatus Champ. 1886FS90

Blapstinus Sturm 1826 [incl. Aspidius Mulsant & Rey 1859, Heteropus Laporte 1840 nec Beauvois 1805 nec Duméril & Bibron 1839, Lodinus Mulsant & Rey 1859, Pedonoeces Waterhouse 1845, Tessaroma Boheman 1858]AT02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AT02] Aalbu, R. L., C. A. Triplehorn, J. M. Campbell, K. W. Brown, R. E. Somerby & D. B. Thomas. 2002. Tenebrionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 463–509. CRC Press.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B02] Bosc, C. 1802. Description d’une nouvelle espèce d’opatre. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (Bulletin de la Société Philomathique, a ses correspondans): 8′.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[K77] Kaszab, Z. 1977. Tenebrionidae der Nepal-Expeditionen von Dr. J. Martens (1969–1974) (Insecta: Coleoptera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 241–283.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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