Pyramodon punctatus, from Atlas of Living Australia.

Belongs within: Acanthomorphata.
Contains: Bythitidae, Neobythitinae, Carapinae.

The Ophidiiformes are benthic or benthopelagic, often deep-water fishes with tapering bodies.

Characters (from Bond 1996): Body tapering; dorsal and anal fins long, often confluent with caudal; dorsal and anal pterygiophores more numerous than adjacent vertebrae; pelvic fins usually jugular to mental, resembling elongate barbels, sometimes with small spines.

<==Ophidiiformes [Ophidiimorpharia]LD09
    |  i. s.: Bassogigas profundissimusB96
    |         Eolamprogrammus senectus Danil’chenko 1968P93
    |    |--BythitidaeLD09
    |    `--ParabrotulidaeB-RB13
    `--Ophidiidae [Brotulidae, Ophidioidei]B96
         |  i. s.: LepophidiumCK-M02
         |           |--L. jeannaeC73
         |           `--L. profundorum (Gill 1863)CK-M02
         |         TyphliasRO69
         |         Grammonus aterRO69
         |         Moebia gracilis (Günther 1878) [=Bathynectes gracilis, Porogadus gracilis]M58
         |         Brotulophis argentistriatusJR10
         |         Petrotyx sanguineusAS09
         |         Sirembinorum bavaricus (Koken 1891)P93
         |         Ampheristus toliapicus König 1825P93
         |         Brotulotaenia [Brotulotaeniinae]B96
         |           `--B. nielseni Cohen 1974N99b
         |         OphidiinaeB96
         |           |--GenypterusB96
         |           |    |--G. blacodesR59
         |           |    |--G. capensisH72
         |           |    |--G. chilensisB96
         |           |    `--G. reediB96
         |           `--Ophidion Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. Diaphasia Lowe 1843L43]
         |                |--O. barbatum Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--O. genyopus Ogilby 1897N99b
         |                |--O. imberbe Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. *Diaphasia acus Lowe 1843L43, Ophidium fierasferL43]
         |                |--O. macrophthalmum Linnaeus 1758L58
         |                |--O. marginatum (DeKay 1842)CK-M02
         |                `--O. muraenolepis (Günther 1880)N99b
         |--Brotula [Brotulinae]ND13
         |    |--B. maculata Day 1868M58
         |    `--B. multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846N99b
            `--Carapidae [Pyramodontidae]B96
                 |  i. s.: JordanicusM58
                 |           |--J. gracilis (Bleeker 1856) [=Oxybeles gracilis, Fierasfer gracilis]M58
                 |           `--J. parvipinnis (Kaup 1856) [=Fierasfer parvipinnis]M58
                      |--Snyderidia canina Gilbert 1905N99a
                           |--P. lindas Markle & Olney 1990N99a
                           |--P. punctatus (Regan 1914)N99a
                           `--P. ventralis Smith & Radcliffe 1913N99a

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C73] Camp, D. K. 1973. Stomatopod Crustacea. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 3 (2): 1–100.

[CK-M02] Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee. 2002. Cusk-eels. Family Ophidiidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 208–211. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[H72] Hulley, P. A. 1972. The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Annals of the South African Museum 60 (1): 1–103.

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L43] Lowe, R. T. 1843. On the fishes of Madeira. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 81–95.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[N99a] Nielsen, J. G. 1999a. Carapidae. Pearlfishes. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1978. FAO: Rome.

[N99b] Nielsen, J. G. 1999b. Ophidiidae. Cusk eels. In: Carpenter, K. E., & V. H. Niem (eds) The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae) pp. 1979–1982. FAO: Rome.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RO69] Riedl, R., & B. Ozretic. 1969. Hydrobiology of marginal caves. Part I. General problems and introduction. Internationale Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 54 (5): 661–683.

[R59] Robinson, E. S. 1959. Records of cestodes from marine fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 143–153.

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