Common brittle stars Ophiothrix fragilis, copyright Bernard Picton.

Belongs within: Gnathophiuridea.

The Ophiotrichidae are a family of stout-toothed brittle stars.

Characters (from Spencer & Wright 1966): Teeth stout, quadrangular, spiniform tooth papillae clustered at apex of each jaw. No oral papillae.

    |--Ophiomaza Lyman 1871 [incl. Luetkenia Brock 1888 nec Claus 1864 nec Duncan 1878]SW66
    |    `--*O. cacaotica Lyman 1871SW66
    |--Ophiopteron Ludwig 1888SW66
    |    `--*O. elegans Ludwig 1888SW66
    |--Amphiophiothrix Clark 1946SW66
    |    `--*A. demessa (Lyman 1861) [=Ophiothrix demessa]SW66
    |--Gymnolophus Brock 1888SW66
    |    `--*G. holdsworthi (Smith 1878) [=Ophiothela holdsworthi]SW66
    |--Lissophiothrix Clark 1938SW66
    |    `--*L. delicata Clark 1938SW66
    |--Ophioaethiops Brock 1888 [incl. Ophiohelix Koehler 1895]SW66
    |    `--*O. unicolor Brock 1888SW66
    |--Ophiocnemis Müller & Troschel 1842SW66
    |    `--*O. marmorata (Lamarck 1816) [=Ophiura marmorata]SW66
    |--Ophiolophus Marktanner-Turneretscher 1887SW66
    |    `--*O. novarae Marktanner-Turneretscher 1887SW66
    |--Ophiopeltis Düben & Koren 1846SW66
    |    `--*O. securigera Düben & Koren 1846SW66
    |--Ophiophthirius Döderlein 1898SW66
    |    `--*O. actinometrae Döderlein 1898SW66
    |--Ophiopsammium Lyman 1874SW66
    |    `--*O. semperi Lyman 1874SW66
    |--Ophiosphaera Brock 1888SW66
    |    `--*O. insignis Brock 1888SW66
    |--Ophiotrichoides Ludwig 1882SW66
    |    `--*O. lymani Ludwig 1882SW66
    |--Ophiothela Verrill 1867 [incl. Ophioteresis Bell 1892]SW66
    |    |--*O. mirabilis Verrill 1867SW66
    |    `--O. danae Verrill 1869MG-H11
    |--Ophiogymna Ljungman 1866 [incl. Ophiocampsis Duncan 1887]SW66
    |    |--*O. elegans Ljungman 1866SW66
    |    |--O. pellicula (Duncan 1887)BM09
    |    `--O. pulchella (Koehler 1905)MG-H11
    |--Macrophiothrix Clark 1938 [incl. Placophiothrix Clark 1938]SW66
    |    |--*M. longipeda (Lamarck 1816) [=Ophiura longipeda]SW66
    |    |--M. caenosa Hoggett 2006SM15
    |    |--M. callizona Clark 1938SM15
    |    |--M. demessa (Lyman 1861)BM09
    |    |--M. koehleri Clark 1968MG-H11
    |    |--M. leucosticha Hoggett 1991SM15
    |    |--M. lorioli Clark 1968SM15
    |    |--M. megapoma Clark 1938SM15
    |    |--M. microplax (Bell 1884)SM15
    |    |--M. paucispina Hoggett 1991SM15
    |    |--M. propinqua (Lyman 1861)SM15
    |    |--M. rhabdota (Clark 1915)SM15
    |    |--M. robillardi (de Loriol 1893)SM15
    |    |--‘Ophiothrix (Placophiothrix)’ striolata Grube 1868SM15
    |    `--M. variabilis (Duncan 1887)MG-H11
    `--Ophiothrix Müller & Troschel 1840B01
         |--*O. fragilis (Abildgaard in Müller 1789)TS16 [incl. O. alopecurusBK77, O. echinataBK77, O. versicolorBK77]
         |--O. aristulata Lyman 1879MG-H11
         |--O. armata Koehler 1905BM09
         |--O. caespitosa Lyman 1879MG-H11
         |--O. capillarisH04
         |--O. ciliaris (Lamarck 1816)MG-H11
         |--O. contenta Koehler 1930SM15
         |--O. crassispinaW93
         |--O. deceptor Koehler 1922SM15
         |--O. exigua Lyman 1874BM09
         |--O. foveolata Marktanner-Turneretscher 1887MG-H11
         |--O. lineocaerulea Clark 1928SM15
         |--O. martensi Lyman 1874SM15
         |--O. melanosticta Grube 1868SM15
         |--O. miles Koehler 1905SM15
         |--O. nereidina (Lamarck 1816)BM09
         |--O. pentaphylla (Pennant 1777) [=Asterias pentaphylla; incl. Ophiura rosula Fleming 1828, Ophiothrix rosula]SW66
         |--O. picteti de Loriol 1893SM15
         |--O. plana Lyman 1874SM15
         |--O. purpurea von Martins 1867BM09
         |--O. quinquemaculataBK77
         |--O. royeri (de Loriol 1872)SG93
         |--O. savignyi (Müller & Troschel 1842)SM15
         |--O. smaragdina Studer 1882SM15
         |--O. spiculataCH97
         |--O. spongicola Stimpson 1855MG-H11
         |--O. trilineata Lütken 1869SM15
         `--O. viridialba von Martens 1867MG-H11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SW66] Spencer, W. K., & C. W. Wright. 1966. Asterozoans. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U4–U107. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[TS16] Thuy, B., & S. Stöhr. 2016. A new morphological phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) accords with molecular evidence and renders microfossils accessible for cladistics. PLoS One 11 (5): e0156140.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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