Ophiurida

 Amphiophiura urbana, from Museum Victoria.

Belongs within: Ophiuroidea.
Contains: Ophiurinae, Ophiolepididae, Ophiochitonidae, Gnathophiuridea, Ophioleucinae, Ophiacanthidae, Ophiodermatidae, Ophiomyxinae.

The Ophiuridae are a family of brittle stars with the arms fused to the central disc and without granulation on the disc scales or plates. Their fossil record extends back to the Lower Carboniferous, with the distinctive genus Aganaster from that period set apart by virtue of its disc with large radial shields united in pairs (Spencer & Wright 1966).

The Phrynophiurida are a group of ophiuroids with the arm plates reduced and the disc and arms covered by a thick soft skin. In the suborder Euryalina, the disc is small and also lacks plates (Spencer & Wright 1966).

<==Ophiurida (see below for synonymy)
    |--Aganaster Miller & Gurley 1890TS16, SW66 [=Ophiopege Böhm 1893SW66; Aganasteridae, Aganasterinae]
    |    `--*A. gregarius (Meek & Worthen 1869) [=Protaster gregarius, *Ophiopege gregarius]SW66
    `--+--Ophiomusium Lyman 1869TS16, SW66 [=Ophiomusa Hertz 1927SW66; incl. Ophiuraster Miller 1958 non Clark 1939SW66]
       |    |--*O. eburneum Lyman 1869SW66
       |    |--O. acuferumB89
       |    |--O. anisacanthum Clark 1928MG-H11
       |    |--O. armigerum (Lyman 1882)C94
       |    |--O. australe Clark 1928MG-H11
       |    |--O. facundum Koehler 1922MG-H11
       |    |--O. ferrugineum Schlippe 1888B89
       |    |--O. granulosumSW66
       |    |--O. lymani Wyville-Thomson 1873TS16
       |    |--O. relictum Koehler 1904MG-H11
       |    `--O. validumB89
       `--+--+--OphiurinaeTS16
          |  `--Palaeocoma d’Orbigny 1850TS16, SW66
          |       |--*P. milleri (Phillips 1829) [=Ophiura milleri]SW66
          |       |--P. escheri (Heer 1865)SG93
          |       `--P. fuerstenbergii [=Ophiura fuerstenbergii]B89
          `--+--+--OphiolepididaeTS16
             |  `--+--OphiochitonidaeTS16
             |     `--GnathophiurideaTS16
             `--+--Aplocoma d’Orbigny 1852TS16, SW66
                |    |--*A. agassizi (von Münster 1839)SW66, TS16 [=Acroura agassiziSW66]
                |    |--A. leckenbyiSW66
                |    `--A. murraviiSW66
                |--+--OphioleucinaeTS16
                |  `--+--+--OphiacanthidaeTS16
                |     |  `--Ophiocomina Koehler 1920TS16, SW66
                |     |       `--*O. nigra (Abildgaard in Müller 1789)SW66, TS16 [=Asterias nigraSW66]
                |     `--+--Ophiolycus Mortensen 1933TS16, SW66
                |        |    |--*O. inermis Mortensen 1933SW66
                |        |    `--O. purpureus (Düben & Koren 1846)TS16
                |        `--Ophioscolex Müller & Troschel 1842TS16, SW66 [incl. Ophiocynodus Clark 1911SW66]
                |             |--*O. glacialis Müller & Troschel 1842SW66
                |             `--O. purpureusBK77
                `--+--OphiodermatidaeTS16
                   `--Ophiomyxidae [Ophiomyxina]F67
                        |--OphiomyxinaeTS16
                        `--OphiobyrsinaeSW66
                             |--Ophiobyrsa Lyman 1878SW66
                             |    `--*O. rudis Lyman 1878SW66
                             |--Astrogymnotes Clark 1914 [incl. Ophiovesta Koehler 1931]SW66
                             |    `--*A. catasticta Clark 1914SW66
                             |--Ophiobrachion Lyman 1883SW66
                             |    `--*O. uncinatus Lyman 1883SW66
                             |--Ophiobyrsella Verrill 1899SW66
                             |    `--*O. serpens Lyman 1883SW66
                             |--Ophioschiza Clark 1911SW66
                             |    `--*O. monacantha Clark 1911SW66
                             |--Ophiosmilax Matsumoto 1915SW66
                             |    `--*O. mirabilis Matsumoto 1915SW66
                             `--Ophiophrixus Clark 1911SW66
                                  |--*O. acanthinus Clark 1911SW66
                                  `--O. spinosusBK77
Ophiurida incertae sedis:
  Pluteus paradoxusH04
  OphiurinidaeSW66
    |--Ophiurina Stürtz 1890SW66
    |    `--*O. lymani Stürtz 1890SW66
    |--Argentinaster Ruedemann 1916SW66
    |    `--*A. bodenbenderi Ruedemann 1916SW66
    |--Ophiaulax Ubaghs 1941SW66
    |    `--*O. dechen (Dewalque 1881) [=Protaster decheni]SW66
    |--Silesiaster Schwarzbach & Zimmermann 1936SW66
    |    `--*S. longivertebralis Schwarzbach & Zimmermann 1936SW66
    `--Stephanoura Ubaghs 1941SW66
         `--*S. belgica Ubaghs 1941SW66

Ophiurida [Chilophiurida, Chilophiurina, Colophiura, Laemophiurida, Laemophiurina, Myophiuroidea, Ophiocomidea, Ophiodermatina, Ophiureae, Ophiuridae, Phrynophiurida]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B89] Boehm, G. 1889. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss fossiler Ophiuren. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiburg I. B. 4: 232–287, pls 4–5.

[C94] Cedhagen, T. 1994. Taxonomy and biology of Hyrrokkin sarcophaga gen. et sp. n., a parasitic foraminiferan (Rosalinidae). Sarsia 79: 65–82.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. HomalozoaCrinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SW66] Spencer, W. K., & C. W. Wright. 1966. Asterozoans. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U4–U107. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[TS16] Thuy, B., & S. Stöhr. 2016. A new morphological phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) accords with molecular evidence and renders microfossils accessible for cladistics. PLoS One 11 (5): e0156140.

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