Opilio

Opilio parietinus, from here.

Belongs within: Phalangiidae.

Opilio is a genus of phalangiid harvestmen native to the western Palaearctic, with one species O. parietinus more widely introduced. They are commonly associated with rocky, arid and semiarid habitats; species in Europe are commonly associated with built structures.

Characters (from Martens 1978): Truncus penis slender to robust, basal section not demarcated, but truncus mostly narrowed from the basal half distad; two lateral pockets present below shaft-glans junction, opening laterad, dorsad or ventrad. Pedipalp without apophyses, normally proportioned. Tuber oculorum with axes of eyes pointed obliquely upward. Secondary sexual characteristics weakly developed; male with femora thickened in some species; pedipalpal tarsus with ventral row of granules.

<==Opilio Herbst 1798K14
    |--*O. parietinus (DeGeer 1778)C92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. afghanus Roewer 1960 [=O. afganus (l. c.)]SCM18
    |--O. altaicus Roewer 1956R56
    |--O. arborphilus Snegovaya 2010SCM18
    |--O. canestrinii (Thorell 1876) (see below for synonymy)D04
    |--O. chinensis Roewer 1956R56
    |--O. consputus (Simon 1895) [=Phalangium consputum]R23
    |--O. coxipunctus (Sørensen 1912)K14 [=Phalangium coxipunctumR23; incl. O. cypricus Rower 1956S03, R56]
    |--O. decoratus Koch 1878R23
    |--O. dinaricus Šilhavý 1938K14
    |--O. ejuncidus (Thorell 1876)S03 [=Phalangium ejuncidumR23]
    |--O. grasshoffi Staręga 1986S03
    |--O. hemseni Roewer 1952 [incl. Homolophus azerbaijanicus Snegovaya & Staręga 2008, O. reginae Staręga 1966]SCM18
    |--O. himalincola Martens 1973S03
    |--O. insulae Roewer 1956K14
    |--O. kakunini Snegovaya, Cokendolpher & Mozaffarian 2018SCM18
    |--O. lederi Roewer 1911K14 [incl. O. redikorzevi Roewer 1956S03]
    |--O. lepidus (Koch 1878)S03 [=Phalangium lepidumR12]
    |--O. magnus Hadži 1973S03
    |--O. nabozhenkoi Snegovaya 2010SCM18
    |--O. ovalis Koch & Berendt 1854S02
    |--O. pictus Hadži 1973S03
    |--O. putnik Karaman 1999K99
    |--O. rutilus Morin 1934S03
    |--O. ruzickai Šilhavý 1938S03
    |--O. saxatilis Koch 1839K14 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. setipenis Snegovaya 2008S08
    |--O. transversalis Roewer 1956S03
    |--O. trispinifrons Roewer 1911R23
    |--O. validus Roewer 1959K14
    `--O. zichyi Roewer 1923 [=Phalangium scabrum Kulczyński 1901 non Opilio scaber Herbst 1799]R23

Opilio canestrinii (Thorell 1876) [=Phalangium canestrinii; incl. O. aspromontanus Gruber 1964, O. ravennae Spoek 1962, O. zangherii Spoek 1962]D04

*Opilio parietinus (De Geer 1778)C92 [=Phalangium parietinumD04; incl. O. albidus Pavesi 1873D04, P. baumii Kollar 1839D04, Mitopus californicus Banks 1895CH18, Nitopus (l. c.) californicusCH18, Phalangium cinereum Wood 1870D04, Opilio leucophaeus Koch 1839D04, O. longipes Herbst 1798D04, Phalangium segmentatum Simon 1879D04]

Opilio saxatilis Koch 1839K14 [=Phalangium saxatileD04; incl. Metadasylobus bolei Hadži 1973M78, Opilio boleiD04, O. cavernarum Roewer 1956D04, O. macedonicus Hadži 1973D04, O. parietinus silhavyi Kratochvil 1934D04, O. turcicus Roewer 1956D04, Phalangium saxatile var. znoiko Morin 1937S12]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CH18] Cokendolpher, J. C., & R. G. Holmberg. 2018. Harvestmen of the family Phalangiidae (Arachnida, Opiliones) in the Americas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 67: 1–44.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[K99] Karaman, I. M. 1999. Opilio putnik n. sp., a new harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones, Phalangiidae) from Montenegro. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 16 (1–2): 77–82.

[K14] Kurt, K. 2014. Updated checklist of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Turkey. Arch. Biol. Sci. 66 (4): 1617–1631.

[M78] Martens, J. 1978. Spinnentiere, Arachnida: Weberknechte, Opiliones. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[R12] Roewer, C.-F. 1912. Revision der Opiliones Palpatores (=Opiliones Plagiostethi). II. Teil: Familie der Phalangiidae. (Subfamilien: Sclerosomini, Oligolophini, Phalangiini). Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften, herausgegeben vom Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg 20 (1): 1–295.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R56] Roewer, C. F. 1956. Über Phalangiinae (Phalangiidae, Opiliones Palpatores). (Weitere Weberknechte XIX). Senckenbergiana Biologica 37 (3–4): 247–318.

[S08] Snegovaya, N. Y. 2008. New data on the harvestman fauna of Israel (Arachnida: Opiliones). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 14 (6): 272–280.

[S12] Snegovaya, N. Y. 2012. A new harvestman species (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae: Homolophus) from Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijan). Fragmenta Faunistica 55 (1): 5–10.

[SCM18] Snegovaya, N. Y., J. C. Cokendolpher & F. Mozaffarian. 2018. The Opiliones of Iran with a description of a new genus and two new species. Journal of Arachnology 46 (1): 69–80.

[S02] Staręga, W. 2002. Baltic amber harvestmen (Opiliones) from Polish collections. Annales Zoologici 52 (4): 601–604.

[S03] Staręga, W. 2003. On the identity and synonymies of some Asiatic Opilioninae (Opiliones: Phalangiidae). Acta Arachnologica 52 (2): 91–102.

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