Opuntia engelmannii, copyright Pschemp.

Belongs within: Opuntioideae.

Opuntia, the prickly pears, is a genus of cacti with stems divided into flattened cladodes; circumscription of the genus is problematic and it may not be monophyletic as currently recognised. Terete-stemmed species have been separated into the related genera Cylindropuntia and Corynopuntia (Griffiths & Porter 2009).

<==Opuntia Miller 1754T84
    |--O. chaffeyiGP09
    |--O. erinaceaGP09
    |    |--O. e. var. erinacea [incl. O. ursina]H93
    |    `--O. e. var. utahensis [incl. O. rhodantha, O. xanthostemma]H93
    |--O. macbrideiiGP09
    |--O. robusta Wendl. ex Pfeiffer 1837GP09, T84
    |--+--O. decumbensGP09
    |  `--O. pubescensGP09
    |--+--O. excelsaGP09
    |  `--O. pycnanthaGP09
    |--+--O. eichiosGP09
    |  |--O. galapageiaGP09
    |  |--O. megaspermaGP09
    |  `--O. sulfureaGP09
    |--+--O. depressaGP09
    |  `--+--O. megacantha Salm-Dyck 1834GP09, T84
    |     |--O. pittieriGP09
    |     |--O. schumanniGP09
    |     `--+--O. ficus-indica (L.) Miller 1768GP09, T84 [=Cactus ficus-indica L. 1753T84; incl. O. amycleaT84, O. pachonaT84]
    |        `--O. tomentosa Salm-Dyck 1822GP09, T84
    `--+--O. boldingiiGP09
       |--O. santa-ritaGP09
       `--+--O. aureispinaGP09
          |--O. camanchicaGP09
          |--O. macrocentraGP09
          |--O. strigilGP09
          `--+--O. engelmanniiGP09 [incl. O. phaeacantha var. discataH93]
             `--O. phaeacanthaGP09 [incl. O. phaeacantha var. majorH93, O. mojavensisH93, O. littoralis var. pierceiH93]
Opuntia incertae sedis:
  *O. humifusa (Raf.) Raf. 1830 (see below for synonymy)T84
  O. articulataEL98
  O. aurantiaca Lindley 1833T84
  O. basilarisH93
    |--O. b. var. basilaris [incl. O. basilaris var. ramosa, O. whitneyana]H93
    |--O. b. var. brachyclada [incl. O. humistrata]H93
    `--O. b. var. treleaseiH93
  O. chloroticaH93
  O. cochinilliferaT-W89
  O. curvospinaH93
  O. dejecta [=Nopalea dejecta]T84
  O. demissaH93
  O. elatior Miller 1768T84
  O. ficus-barbaricaY98
  O. fragilisH93
  O. fulgidaH06
  O. helleriRJ11
  O. junctolineelaC90
  O. leptocaulisT84
  O. lepticollisOB11
  O. lindheimeri Engelm. 1850T84
    |--O. l. var. lindheimeriT84
    `--O. l. var. linguiformisT84
  O. littoralis [incl. O. semispinosa]H93
  O. lubricaT84
  O. mesacanthaR35
  O. microdasys (Lehm.) Pfeiffer 1837 [=Cactus microdasys Lehm. 1827]T84
  O. × occidentalisH93
  O. oricolaH93
  O. paraguayensis Schum. 1899 [incl. O. bonaerensis Speg. 1904]T84
  O. polyacanthaCL86
  O. rufidaT84
  O. soehrensiiEL98
  O. spinosiorLW70
  O. spinosissimaSS96
  O. spinuliferaH06
  O. streptacantha Lemaire 1839T84
  O. stricta (Haw.) Haw. 1812 [=Cactus strictus Haw. 1803]T84
    |--O. s. var. stricta (see below for synonymy)T84
    `--O. s. var. dillenii (Ker Gawler) Benson 1969 (see below for synonymy)T84
  O. subulataT84
  O. sulphurea Don ex Loudon 1830T84
  O. tenuispinaH90
  O. triacanthaSS96
  O. tunicataT84
  O. × vaseyi (see below for synonymy)H93
  O. verschaffeltiiEL98
  O. vulgaris Miller 1768 [incl. Cactus monacanthus Willd. 1814, O. monacantha (Willd.) Haw. 1919]T84
  O. wentianaF11
  O. whippleiR72

*Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. 1830 [=Cactus humifusus Raf. 1820; incl. C. compressus Salisb. 1796, Opuntia compressa (Salisb.) Macbride 1922, C. opuntia L. 1753, O. opuntia (L.) Coulter 1896 (nom. illeg.)]T84

Opuntia stricta var. dillenii (Ker Gawler) Benson 1969 [=Cactus dillenii Ker Gawler 1818, O. dillenii (Ker Gawler) Haw. 1819]T84

Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. 1812 var. stricta [incl. O. bentonii Griff. 1912, Cactus opuntia var. inermis DC. 1804, O. inermis (DC.) DC. 1828]T84

Opuntia × vaseyi [O. littoralis × O. phaeacantha; =O. littoralis var. vaseyi; incl. O. littoralis var. austrocalifornica, O. occidentalis var. covillei]H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[EL98] Eggli, U., & B. E. Leuenberger. 1998. On colour forms of Opuntia weberi (Cactaceae) with notes on the typification of the name. Willdenowia 28: 175–180.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[GP09] Griffith, M. P., & J. M. Porter. 2009. Phylogeny of Opuntioideae (Cactaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170 (1): 107–116.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LW70] Lowe, C. H., J. W. Wright, C. J. Cole & R. L. Bezy. 1970. Natural hybridization between the teiid lizards Cnemidophorus sonorae (parthenogenetic) and Cnemidophorus tigris (bisexual). Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 114–127.

[OB11] Orenstein, R. I., & D. Brewer. 2011. Family Cardinalidae (cardinals). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 330–427. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[R72] Raske, A. G. 1972. Immature forms, genitalia, and notes on the biology of Anelaphus albofasciatus Linnell (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (1): 21–26.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[T84] Telford, I. R. H. 1984. Cactaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 4. Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae pp. 62–80. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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