Orchidaceae

Neuwiedia veratrifolia, copyright Chipmunk_1.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.
Contains: Cypripedioideae, Monandrae.

The Orchidaceae, orchids, are a diverse and distinctive group of plants in which the flowers commonly have the lower petal differentiated into a distinctive lip. Pollination often involves complex specialisations, attracting pollinators using visual and/or odour cues rather than by offering a nectar reward. Most studies agree that the Indo-Australian Apostasioideae, characterised by the presence of two or three stamens, axile placentation, and pollen not gathered into pollinia, represent the sister taxon of the remaining Orchidaceae.

Systematics of Orchidaceae

Characters (from Moore & Edgar 1970): Perennial, terrestrial, epiphytic or saprophytic herbs with rhizomes, tubers or thickened rootstocks. Aerial stem often swollen at base into pseudobulb, and often with adventitious or aerial roots. Leaves usually entire, often distichous, sheathing at base, sometimes reduced to scales. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, in spikes, racemes or panicles, or solitary. Perianth mostly petaloid, of six segments in two whorls, free or variously connate, occasionally joined to form a tube; the middle segment in each whorl usually different from the two lateral ones, the middle petal or labellum often differing greatly in size, shape or outgrowths (calli) from the others and usually directed downwards; nectary sometimes contained within a spur or sac from one or more of the perianth segments. Anthers and stigmas borne on a more or less erect, usually fleshy structure, the column. Anthers 1 or 2, bilocular, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen grains rarely free, usually aggregated in tetrads or larger groups (pollinia) that are mealy, waxy or quite hard and sometimes terminate in a sterile caudicle. Ovary inferior, unilocular with three parietal placentae (rarely trilocular); stigma borne on part of column facing labellum, of three or two lobes, the medium lobe sometimes represented by a small process, the rostellum, between the stigma and the anther; viscid areas (viscidia) sometimes associated with rostellum and to these pollinia become attached either directly or by a connecting strip of non-viscid rostellar or columnar tissue known as the stipe. Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by three or six longitudinal slits. Seeds very numerous, minute, often elongated, without endosperm or differentiated embryo.

<==Orchidaceae (see below for synonymy)RG07
    |--+--CypripedioideaeRG07
    |  `--MonandraeRG07
    `--ApostasioideaeRG07
         |--ApostasiaRG07
         `--Neuwiedia [Neuwiedioideae]RG07
              `--N. veratrifoliaDS04
Orchidaceae incertae sedis:
  Trichotosia annulataP03
  Corymbis veratrifoliaP03
  PonerochisCP02
    |--P. chusuaO88
    `--P. tominagaiCP02
  Dactylorchis maculataHE80
  OligochaetochilusOS04
    |--O. muticusG04b
    |--O. pictusG04a
    |--O. sanguineusOS04
    |--O. sargentiiG04b
    `--O. vittatusOS04
  CyaniculaOS04
    |--C. amplexansG04b
    |--C. deformisOS04
    `--C. sericeaOS04
  Leptoceras menziesiiGK00
  Pyrorchis nigricansGK00
  SmithsoniaP06
    |--*S. stramineaP06
    `--‘Micropera’ maculataP06
  TriphoreaeA86
    |--MonophyllorchisA86
    |--PsilochilusA86
    `--Triphora trianthophoraV72
  Sturmia reflexaH86
  Palaeorchis rhyzoma Massalongo 1858CBH93
  Protorchis monorchis Massalongo 1858CBH93
  Papillilabium beckleriH90
  Schistotylus purpuratusH90
  Barlaea Rchb. 1876KC01
  Cryptopus Lindl. 1824KC01
  Empusa Lindl. 1824KC01
  Epiphora Lindl. 1837KC01
  Galera Blume 1825KC01
  Gymnochilus Blume 1859KC01
  Hylophila Lindl. 1833KC01
  Titania Endl. 1833KC01
  Microstylis wallichiiSS72
  Hetaeria Blume 1828 (nom. cons.) [=Etaeria Blume 1825]A87
  AeridesT-W89
    |--A. huttoniT-W89
    |--A. quinquevulnerumT-W89
    |--A. suaveolensT-W89
    |--A. suavissimumT-W89
    |--A. superbumT-W89
    |--A. taenialeT-W89
    `--A. virensT-W89
  Leopardanthus scandensT-W89

Orchidaceae [Apostasiaceae, Cypripediaceae, Diandrae, Limodoraceae, Liparidaceae, Microspermae, Neottiaceae, Neuwiediaceae, Ophrydaceae, Orchidineae, Pycnanthaceae, Vanillaceae]RG07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A87] Adams, L. G. 1987. Philydraceae. Flora of Australia 45: 40–46.

[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H86] Hamilton, A. G. 1886. List of the Orchideae of the Mudgee district. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 865–878.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[P03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299–310.

[P06] Phukan, S. 2006. The genus Micropera Lindl. (Orchidaceae) in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 165–174.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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